Intel® Arria® 10 Transceiver PHY User Guide

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ID 683617
Date 3/28/2022
Public
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2.6.1.4. Rate Match FIFO for GbE

The rate match FIFO compensates frequency Part-Per-Million (ppm) differences between the upstream transmitter and the local receiver reference clock up to 125 MHz ± 100 ppm difference.
Note: 200 ppm total is only true if calculated as (125 MHz + 100 ppm) - (125 MHz - 100 ppm) = 200 ppm. By contrast, (125 MHz + 0 ppm) - (125 MHz - 200 ppm) is out of specification.

The GbE protocol requires the transmitter to send idle ordered sets /I1/ (/K28.5/D5.6/) and /I2/ (/K28.5/D16.2/) during inter-packet gaps (IPG) adhering to the rules listed in the IEEE 802.3-2008 specification.

The rate match operation begins after the synchronization state machine in the word aligner indicates synchronization is acquired by driving the rx_syncstatus signal high. The rate matcher deletes or inserts both symbols /K28.5/ and /D16.2/ of the /I2/ ordered sets as a pair in the operation to prevent the rate match FIFO from overflowing or underflowing. The rate match operation can insert or delete as many /I2/ ordered sets as necessary.

The following figure shows a rate match deletion operation example where three symbols must be deleted. Because the rate match FIFO can only delete /I2/ ordered sets, it deletes two /I2/ ordered sets (four symbols deleted).

Figure 48. Rate Match FIFO Deletion


The following figure shows an example of rate match FIFO insertion in the case where one symbol must be inserted. Because the rate match FIFO can only insert /I2/ ordered sets, it inserts one /I2/ ordered set (two symbols inserted).

Figure 49. Rate Match FIFO Insertion


rx_std_rmfifo_full and rx_std_rmfifo_empty are forwarded to the FPGA fabric to indicate rate match FIFO full and empty conditions.

The rate match FIFO does not delete code groups to overcome a FIFO full condition. It asserts the rx_std_rmfifo_full flag for at least two recovered clock cycles to indicate rate match FIFO full. The following figure shows the rate match FIFO full condition when the write pointer is faster than the read pointer.

Figure 50. Rate Match FIFO Full Condition


The rate match FIFO does not insert code groups to overcome the FIFO empty condition. It asserts the rx_std_rmfifo_empty flag for at least two recovered clock cycles to indicate that the rate match FIFO is empty. The following figure shows the rate match FIFO empty condition when the read pointer is faster than the write pointer.

Figure 51. Rate Match FIFO Empty Condition


In the case of rate match FIFO full and empty conditions, you must assert the rx_digitalreset signal to reset the receiver PCS blocks.

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