Intel® Arria® 10 Core Fabric and General Purpose I/Os Handbook

ID 683461
Date 1/21/2022
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6.7.1.3. Sequencer

The sequencer enables high-frequency memory interface operation by calibrating the interface to compensate for variations in setup and hold requirements caused by transmission delays.

The sequencer implements a calibration algorithm to determine the combination of delay and phase settings that are necessary to maintain center-alignment of data and clock signals, even in the presence of significant delay variations. Programmable delay chains in the FPGA I/Os then implement the calculated delays to ensure that data remains centered.

A sequencer is embedded in every I/O bank. The sequencer is comprised of the following components:

  • A read-write manager.
  • An address/command set or instruction ROM.
  • Helper modules such as PHY manager, data manager, and tracking manager.
  • Data pattern and data out buffers on a per-pin basis that are managed by the read-write manager.

All major components of the sequencer are connected on the Avalon bus, providing controllability, visibility, and flexibility to the Nios II subsystem.

Figure 128. Sequencer