1.1. Failure Rates 1.2. Mitigating SEU Effects in Embedded User RAM 1.3. Mitigating SEU Effects in Configuration RAM 1.4. Internal Scrubbing 1.5. SEU Recovery 1.6. Intel® Quartus® Prime Software SEU FIT Reports 1.7. Triple-Module Redundancy 1.8. Evaluating a System's Response to Functional Upsets 1.9. CRAM Error Detection Settings Reference 1.10. Document Revision History
2.1. Single Event Upset Mitigation
Integrated circuits and programmable logic devices such as FPGAs are susceptible to SEUs. SEUs are random, nondestructive events, caused by two major sources: alpha particles and neutrons from cosmic rays. Radiation can cause either the logic register, embedded memory bit, or a configuration RAM (CRAM) bit to flip its state, thus leading to unexpected device operation.
Intel® Arria® 10 , Arria® V, Cyclone® V, Stratix® V and newer devices have the following CRAM capabilities:
- Error Detection Cyclical Redundance Checking (EDCRC)
- Automatic correction of an upset CRAM (scrubbing)
- Ability to create an upset CRAM condition (fault injection)
For more information about SEU mitigation in Intel FPGA devices, refer to the SEU Mitigation chapter in the respective device handbook.
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