Bandwidth depends on the efficiency of the memory controller controlling the data transfer to and from the memory device.
You can express bandwidth as follows:
Bandwidth = data width (bits) × data transfer rate (1/s) × efficiency.
Data rate transfer (1/s) = 2 × frequency of operation (4 × for QDR SRAM interfaces).
DRAM typically has an efficiency of around 70%, but when you use the memory controller, efficiency can vary from 10 to 92%.
The efficiency is the percentage of time the data bus is transferring data. It is dependent on the type of memory.
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