AN 114: Board Design Guidelines for Intel Programmable Device Packages

ID 683481
Date 5/27/2022
Public
Document Table of Contents

1.1. Overview of BGA Packages

In BGA packages, the I/O connections are located on the interior of the device. Leads normally placed along the periphery of the package are replaced with solder balls arranged in a matrix across the bottom of the substrate. The final device is soldered directly to the PCB using assembly processes that are virtually identical to the standard surface mount technology preferred by system designers.

Additionally, BGA packages provide the following advantages:

  • Fewer damaged leads—BGA leads consist of solid solder balls, which are less likely to suffer damage during handling.
  • More leads per unit area—Lead counts are increased by moving the solder balls closer to the edges of the package and by decreasing pitch to the following:
    • 1.0 mm for flip-chip and wirebond BGAs
    • 0.8 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.4 mm for wirebond and wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) (also known as VBGA) fine pitch BGAs.
  • Less expensive surface mount equipment—BGA packages can tolerate slightly imperfect placement during mounting, requiring less expensive surface mount equipment. The placement can be imperfect because the BGA packages self-align during solder reflow.
  • Smaller footprints—BGA packages are usually 20% to 50% smaller than QFP packages, making BGA packages more attractive for applications that require high performance and a smaller footprint.
  • Integrated circuit speed advantages—BGA packages operate well into the microwave frequency spectrum and achieve high electrical performance by using ground planes, ground rings, and power rings in the package construction.
  • Improved heat dissipation—Because the die is located at the center of the BGA package and most GND and VCC pins are located at the center of the package, the GND and VCC pins are located under the die. As a result, the heat generated in the device can be transferred out through the GND and VCC pins (i.e., the GND and VCC pins act as a heat sink).

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