Power system design is done in several logical phases:
Choosing a Power Tree
In this phase, a power tree topology is chosen based on the requirements of the device. The requirements of the power supply may not yet be known, but the supply voltage and connection requirements of various devices are available in the Power Management Handbooks, Pin Connection Guidelines, and Power Tree selector guides in the Intel Enpirion® Power Resource Center. Any required power supply sequencing and SmartVID usage will impact the power tree topology.
In this phase, the amount of electrical power required by the various device power supplies is estimated using the Early Power Estimator (EPE) tool or Intel® FPGA Power and Thermal Calculator (PTC) and the Intel® Quartus® Prime Power Analyzer tool. As the design evolves to the final configuration, the quality and type of information available improve and the estimation becomes more accurate.
The current version of the Intel® FPGA PTC supports Intel® Agilex™ and Intel® Stratix® 10 devices. This tool does not support older devices such as the Intel® Arria® 10 and Intel® Cyclone® 10 families; use the corresponding Early Power Estimator if you are working with those devices
In this phase, the device configuration can be optimized for minimum power. This step can involve the Intel® Quartus® software power optimization wizard, the SmartVID feature (in some devices), system cooling decisions, and/or dynamic workload management strategies. This phase may occur several times during the evolution of the system and device design.
In this phase, voltage regulator modules (VRMs) are selected based on the power tree and electrical power estimations. VRM selection is critical to producing high-quality power systems with the minimum number and cost of bypass elements. Intel Enpirion VRMs are featured due to their high quality and fast load transient response.
In this phase, the power distribution network (PDN) is designed, producing a list of the required number, value, and quality of bypass capacitors using the PDN tool, power tree, VRMs, electrical power estimations, and board physical geometries.
Power Dissipation and Thermal Considerations
In this phase, thermal power estimations are used to select device cooling solutions. The EPE or PTC assists with the cooling of system designs. The effects of junction temperature on device power generation and device reliability should be considered in this phase.