Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Pro Edition: Programming Guide

ID 683846
Date 9/26/2022

A newer version of this document is available. Customers should click here to go to the newest version.

Document Table of Contents

5.5.4. Restrictions in OpenCL Pipes Implementation

There are certain design restrictions to the implementation of pipes in your OpenCL™ application.

Default Behavior

By default, pipes exhibit nonblocking behavior. If you want the pipes in your kernel to exhibit blocking behavior, specify the blocking attribute (__attribute__((blocking))) when you declare the read and write pipes.

Emulation Support

The Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Emulator supports emulation of kernels that contain pipes. The level of Emulator support aligns with the subset of OpenCL pipes support that is implemented for the FPGA hardware.

Pipes API Support

Currently, the SDK's implementation of pipes does not support all the built-in pipe functions in the OpenCL Specification version 2.0. For a list of supported and unsupported pipe APIs, refer to OpenCL 2.0 C Programming Language Restrictions for Pipes.

Single Call Site

Because the pipe read and write operations do not function deterministically, for a given kernel, you can only assign one call site per pipe ID. For example, the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler cannot compile the following code example:

read_pipe(pipe1, &in_data1);
read_pipe(pipe2, &in_data2);
read_pipe(pipe1, &in_data3);

The second read_pipe call to pipe1 causes compilation failure because it creates a second call site to pipe1.

To gather multiple data from a given pipe, divide the pipe into multiple pipes, as shown below:

read_pipe(pipe1, &in_data1);
read_pipe(pipe2, &in_data2);
read_pipe(pipe3, &in_data3);

Because you can only assign a single call site per pipe ID, you cannot unroll loops containing pipes. Consider the following code:

#pragma unroll 4
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
    read_pipe (pipe1, &in_data1);

The offline compiler issues the following warning message during compilation:

Compiler Warning: Unroll is required but the loop cannot be unrolled.

Feedback and Feed-Forward Pipes

Pipes within a kernel can be either read_only or write_only. Performance of a kernel that reads and writes to the same pipe is poor.

Kernel Vectorization Support

You cannot vectorize kernels that use pipes; that is, do not include the num_simd_work_items kernel attribute in your kernel code. Vectorizing a kernel that uses pipes creates multiple pipe masters and requires arbitration, which OpenCL pipes specification does not support.

Instruction-Level Parallelism on read_pipe and write_pipe Calls

If no data dependencies exist between read_pipe and write_pipe calls, the offline compiler attempts to execute these instructions in parallel. As a result, the offline compiler might execute these read_pipe and write_pipe calls in an order that does not follow the sequence expressed in the OpenCL kernel code.

Consider the following code sequence:

in_data1 = read_pipe(pipe1);
in_data2 = read_pipe(pipe2);
in_data3 = read_pipe(pipe3);

Because there are no data dependencies between the read_pipe calls, the offline compiler can execute them in any order.