Developer Reference

ID 766877
Date 12/20/2021
Public

## LAPACKE_sgels Example Program in C for Column Major Data Layout

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/*
LAPACKE_sgels Example.
======================

Program computes the least squares solution to the overdetermined linear
system A*X = B with full rank matrix A using QR factorization,
where A is the coefficient matrix:

1.44  -7.84  -4.39   4.53
-9.96  -0.28  -3.24   3.83
-7.55   3.24   6.27  -6.64
8.34   8.09   5.28   2.06
7.08   2.52   0.74  -2.47
-5.45  -5.70  -1.19   4.70

and B is the right-hand side matrix:

8.58   9.35
8.26  -4.43
8.48  -0.70
-5.28  -0.26
5.72  -7.36
8.93  -2.52

Description.
============

The routine solves overdetermined or underdetermined real linear systems
involving an m-by-n matrix A, or its transpose, using a QR or LQ
factorization of A. It is assumed that A has full rank.

Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled
in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the m-by-nrhs right
hand side matrix B and the n-by-nrhs solution matrix X.

Example Program Results.
========================

LAPACKE_sgels (column-major, high-level) Example Program Results

Solution
-0.45   0.25
-0.85  -0.90
0.71   0.63
0.13   0.14

Residual sum of squares for the solution
195.36 107.06

Details of QR factorization
-17.54  -4.76  -1.96   0.42
-0.52  12.40   7.88  -5.84
-0.40  -0.14  -5.75   4.11
0.44  -0.66  -0.20  -7.78
0.37  -0.26  -0.17  -0.15
-0.29   0.46   0.41   0.24
*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include "mkl_lapacke.h"

/* Auxiliary routines prototypes */
extern void print_matrix( char* desc, MKL_INT m, MKL_INT n, float* a, MKL_INT lda );
extern void print_vector_norm( char* desc, MKL_INT m, MKL_INT n, float* a, MKL_INT lda );

/* Parameters */
#define M 6
#define N 4
#define NRHS 2
#define LDA M
#define LDB M

/* Main program */
int main() {
/* Locals */
MKL_INT m = M, n = N, nrhs = NRHS, lda = LDA, ldb = LDB, info;
/* Local arrays */
float a[LDA*N] = {
1.44f, -9.96f, -7.55f,  8.34f,  7.08f, -5.45f,
-7.84f, -0.28f,  3.24f,  8.09f,  2.52f, -5.70f,
-4.39f, -3.24f,  6.27f,  5.28f,  0.74f, -1.19f,
4.53f,  3.83f, -6.64f,  2.06f, -2.47f,  4.70f
};
float b[LDB*NRHS] = {
8.58f,  8.26f,  8.48f, -5.28f,  5.72f,  8.93f,
9.35f, -4.43f, -0.70f, -0.26f, -7.36f, -2.52f
};
/* Executable statements */
printf( "LAPACKE_sgels (column-major, high-level) Example Program Results\n" );
/* Solve the equations A*X = B */
info = LAPACKE_sgels( LAPACK_COL_MAJOR, 'N', m, n, nrhs, a, lda,
b, ldb );
/* Check for the full rank */
if( info > 0 ) {
printf( "The diagonal element %i of the triangular factor ", info );
printf( "of A is zero, so that A does not have full rank;\n" );
printf( "the least squares solution could not be computed.\n" );
exit( 1 );
}
/* Print least squares solution */
print_matrix( "Least squares solution", n, nrhs, b, ldb );
/* Print residual sum of squares for the solution */
print_vector_norm( "Residual sum of squares for the solution", m-n, nrhs,
&b[n], ldb );
/* Print details of QR factorization */
print_matrix( "Details of QR factorization", m, n, a, lda );
exit( 0 );
} /* End of LAPACKE_sgels Example */

/* Auxiliary routine: printing a matrix */
void print_matrix( char* desc, MKL_INT m, MKL_INT n, float* a, MKL_INT lda ) {
MKL_INT i, j;
printf( "\n %s\n", desc );
for( i = 0; i < m; i++ ) {
for( j = 0; j < n; j++ ) printf( " %6.2f", a[i+j*lda] );
printf( "\n" );
}
}

/* Auxiliary routine: printing norms of matrix columns */
void print_vector_norm( char* desc, MKL_INT m, MKL_INT n, float* a, MKL_INT lda ) {
MKL_INT i, j;
float norm;
printf( "\n %s\n", desc );
for( j = 0; j < n; j++ ) {
norm = 0.0;
for( i = 0; i < m; i++ ) norm += a[i+j*lda] * a[i+j*lda];
printf( " %6.2f", norm );
}
printf( "\n" );
}