Once you determine what converters meet the minimum electrical requirements, you must prioritize your system requirements, including size, efficiency, switching frequency, power supply noise, and cost. Optimizing some parameters or resources may degrade the performance of others. For example, increasing the switching frequency allows for a smaller system size with lower switching noise in critical frequency bands, but higher switching frequency requires more DC-DC switching and reduces efficiency by generating more switching loss. The Intel® Enpirion® power solutions use special design techniques and laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor technology to reduce loss at high switching frequencies to minimize this trade-off.
System priorities also vary depending upon the load. For example, the FPGA core power rail input (VCC) requires high power supply accuracy and low ripple to meet tight tolerance specifications, while power supply noise is a key parameter for sensitive power rails (such as transceiver voltage rails) to minimize both jitter and the bit error rate (BER).
Some power management decisions impact designs at the system level and must be considered early in the design process for successful implementation in the final system design. Some components support more advanced system power management and FPGA power reduction techniques; these components typically require special interfaces and feature sets that you should specify early in the FPGA design process. For example, you can include Enpirion® power solutions that support SmartVID in Intel® Arria® 10 10 device designs, or use Intel® Enpirion® digital controllers and PowerSoCs with a PMBus interface to implement system telemetry.
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