Bits, the 0s and 1s of binary code, can be used in many different ways to represent information. To make it easier for computers to communicate with each other, a standard language has been created: ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).
ASCII is an 8-bit code. It uses eight bits to represent a letter, number, or punctuation mark. For instance, a lower case "a" is represented by 0110 00012. The word "cat" would be: