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1. Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Overview 2. Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler Kernel Compilation Flows 3. Obtaining General Information on Software, Compiler, and Custom Platform 4. Managing an FPGA Board 5. Structuring Your OpenCL Kernel 6. Designing Your Host Application 7. Compiling Your OpenCL Kernel 8. Emulating and Debugging Your OpenCL Kernel 9. Developing OpenCL Applications Using Third-party IDEs 10. Developing OpenCL™ Applications Using Intel® Code Builder for OpenCL™ 11. Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Advanced Features A. Support Statuses of OpenCL Features B. Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL Pro Edition Programming Guide Archives C. Document Revision History of the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Pro Edition Programming Guide
3.1. Displaying the Software Version (version) 3.2. Displaying the Compiler Version (-version) 3.3. Listing the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Utility Command Options (help) 3.4. Listing the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler Command Options (no argument, -help, or -h) 3.5. Listing the Available FPGA Boards and Custom Platforms (-list-boards and -list-board-packages) 3.6. Displaying the Compilation Environment of an OpenCL Binary (env)
4.1. Installing an FPGA Board (install) 4.2. Uninstalling an FPGA Board (uninstall) 4.3. Querying the Device Name of Your FPGA Board (diagnose) 4.4. Running a Board Diagnostic Test (diagnose <device_name>) 4.5. Programming the FPGA Offline or without a Host (program <device_name>) 4.6. Programming the Flash Memory (flash <device_name>)
5.1. Guidelines for Naming the Kernel 5.2. Programming Strategies for Optimizing Data Processing Efficiency 5.3. Programming Strategies for Optimizing Pointer-to-Local Memory Size 5.4. Implementing the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Channels Extension 5.5. Implementing OpenCL Pipes 5.6. Implementing Arbitrary Precision Integers 5.7. Using Predefined Preprocessor Macros in Conditional Compilation 5.8. Declaring __constant Address Space Qualifiers 5.9. Including Structure Data Types as Arguments in OpenCL Kernels 5.10. Inferring a Register 5.11. Enabling Double Precision Floating-Point Operations 5.12. Single-Cycle Floating-Point Accumulator for Single Work-Item Kernels 5.13. Integer Promotion Rules
5.2.1. Unrolling a Loop (unroll Pragma) 5.2.2. Disabling Pipelining of a Loop (disable_loop_pipelining Pragma) 5.2.3. Coalescing Nested Loops 5.2.4. Fusing Adjacent Loops (loop_fuse Pragma) 5.2.5. Marking Loops to Prevent Automatic Fusion (nofusion Pragma) 5.2.6. Specifying a Loop Initiation interval (II) 5.2.7. Loop Concurrency (max_concurrency Pragma) 5.2.8. Loop Speculation (speculated_iterations Pragma) 5.2.9. Loop Interleaving Control (max_interleaving Pragma) 5.2.10. Floating Point Optimizations (fp contract and fp reassociate Pragma) 5.2.11. Specifying Work-Group Sizes 5.2.12. Specifying Number of Compute Units 5.2.13. Specifying Number of SIMD Work-Items 5.2.14. Specifying the private_copies Memory Attribute 5.2.15. Specifying the use_stall_enable_clusters Cluster-control Attribute
5.4.1. Overview of the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Channels Extension 5.4.2. Channel Data Behavior 5.4.3. Multiple Work-Item Ordering for Channels 5.4.4. Restrictions in the Implementation of Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Channels Extension 5.4.5. Enabling the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Channels for OpenCL Kernel
126.96.36.199. Declaring the Channel Handle 188.8.131.52. Implementing Blocking Channel Writes 184.108.40.206. Implementing Blocking Channel Reads 220.127.116.11. Implementing I/O Channels Using the io Channels Attribute 18.104.22.168. Emulating I/O Channels Emulating Reading from an I/O Channel Emulating Writing to an I/O Channel 22.214.171.124. Use Models of Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Channels Implementation 126.96.36.199. Implementing Buffered Channels Using the depth Channels Attribute 188.8.131.52. Enforcing the Order of Channel Calls
184.108.40.206. Ensuring Compatibility with Other OpenCL SDKs 220.127.116.11. Declaring the Pipe Handle 18.104.22.168. Implementing Pipe Writes 22.214.171.124. Implementing Pipe Reads 126.96.36.199. Implementing Buffered Pipes Using the depth Attribute 188.8.131.52. Implementing I/O Pipes Using the io Attribute 184.108.40.206. Enforcing the Order of Pipe Calls
6.1. Host Programming Requirements 6.2. Allocating OpenCL Buffers for Manual Partitioning of Global Memory 6.3. Triggering Collection Profiling Data During Kernel Execution 6.4. Accessing Custom Platform-Specific Functions 6.5. Modifying Host Program for Structure Parameter Conversion 6.6. Managing Host Application 6.7. Allocating Shared Memory for OpenCL Kernels Targeting SoCs 6.8. Sharing Multiple Devices Across Multiple Host Programs
220.127.116.11. Linking Your Host Application to the Khronos ICD Loader Library 18.104.22.168. Displaying Flags for Compiling Host Application (compile-config) 22.214.171.124. Displaying Paths to OpenCL Host Runtime and MMD Libraries (ldflags) 126.96.36.199. Listing OpenCL Host Runtime and MMD Libraries (ldlibs) 188.8.131.52. Displaying Information on OpenCL Host Runtime and MMD Libraries (link-config or linkflags)
7.1. Compiling Your Kernel to Create Hardware Configuration File 7.2. Compiling Your Kernel without Building Hardware (-c) 7.3. Compiling and Linking Your Kernels or Object Files without Building Hardware (-rtl) 7.4. Specifying the Location of Header Files (-I=<directory>) 7.5. Specifying the Name of an Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler Output File (-o <filename>) 7.6. Compiling a Kernel for a Specific FPGA Board and Custom Platform (-board=<board_name>) and (-board-package=<board_package_path>) 7.7. Resolving Hardware Generation Fitting Errors during Kernel Compilation (-high-effort) 7.8. Specifying Schedule Fmax Target for Kernels (-clock=<clock_target>) 7.9. Defining Preprocessor Macros to Specify Kernel Parameters (-D<macro_name>) 7.10. Generating Compilation Progress Report (-v) 7.11. Displaying the Estimated Resource Usage Summary On-Screen (-report) 7.12. Suppressing Warning Messages from the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler (-W) 7.13. Converting Warning Messages from the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler into Error Messages (-Werror) 7.14. Removing Debug Data from Compiler Reports and Source Code from the .aocx File (-g0) 7.15. Disabling Burst-Interleaving of Global Memory (-no-interleaving=<global_memory_type>) 7.16. Forcing Ring Interconnect for Global Memory (-global-ring) 7.17. Forcing a Single Store Ring to Reduce Area at the Expense of Write Throughput to Global Memory (-force-single-store-ring) 7.18. Forcing Fewer Read Data Reorder Units to Reduce Area at the Expense of Read Throughput to Global Memory (-num-reorder) 7.19. Configuring Constant Memory Cache Size (-const-cache-bytes=<N>) 7.20. Relaxing the Order of Floating-Point Operations (-ffp-reassociate) 7.21. Reducing Floating-Point Rounding Operations (-ffp-contract=fast) 7.22. Speeding Up Your OpenCL Compilation (-fast-compile) 7.23. Compiling Your Kernel Incrementally (-incremental) 7.24. Compiling Your Kernel with Memory Error Correction Coding (-ecc) 7.25. Disabling Hardware Kernel Invocation Queue (-no-hardware-kernel-invocation-queue) 7.26. Modifying the Handshaking Protocol (-hyper-optimized-handshaking) 7.27. Pipelining Loops in Non-task Kernels (-auto-pipeline)
8.1. Setting up the Emulator 8.2. Modifying Channels Kernel Code for Emulation 8.3. Compiling a Kernel for Emulation (-march=emulator) 8.4. Emulating Your OpenCL Kernel 8.5. Debugging Your OpenCL Kernel on Linux 8.6. Limitations of the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Emulator 8.7. Discrepancies in Hardware and Emulator Results 8.8. Emulator Environment Variables 8.9. Extensions Supported by the Emulator 8.10. Emulator Known Issues
11.1.1. Creating Library Objects From OpenCL Code 11.1.2. Understanding RTL Modules and the OpenCL Pipeline 11.1.3. Packaging an OpenCL Helper Function File for an OpenCL Library 11.1.4. Packaging an RTL Component for an OpenCL Library 11.1.5. Verifying the RTL Modules 11.1.6. Specifying an OpenCL Library when Compiling an OpenCL Kernel 11.1.7. Debugging Your OpenCL Library Through Simulation (Preview) 11.1.8. Using an OpenCL Library that Works with Simple Functions (Example 1) 11.1.9. Using an OpenCL Library that Works with External Memory (Example 2) 11.1.10. OpenCL Library Command-Line Options
184.108.40.206. Overview: Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL Pipeline Approach 220.127.116.11. Integration of an RTL Module into the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL Pipeline 18.104.22.168. Stall-Free RTL 22.214.171.124. RTL Module Interfaces 126.96.36.199. Avalon Streaming Interface 188.8.131.52. RTL Reset and Clock Signals 184.108.40.206. Object Manifest File Syntax of an RTL Module 220.127.116.11. Interaction between RTL Module and External Memory 18.104.22.168. Order of Threads Entering an RTL Module 22.214.171.124. OpenCL C Model of an RTL Module 126.96.36.199. Potential Incompatibility between RTL Modules and Partial Reconfiguration
A.1.1. OpenCL 1.0 C Programming Language Implementation A.1.2. OpenCL C Programming Language Restrictions A.1.3. Argument Types for Built-in Geometric Functions A.1.4. Numerical Compliance Implementation A.1.5. Image Addressing and Filtering Implementation A.1.6. Atomic Functions A.1.7. Embedded Profile Implementation
- 3.4. Listing the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler Command Options (no argument, -help, or -h)
- 7.5. Specifying the Name of an Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler Output File (-o <filename>)
- 7.6. Compiling a Kernel for a Specific FPGA Board and Custom Platform (-board=<board_name>) and (-board-package=<board_package_path>)
- 7.13. Converting Warning Messages from the Intel® FPGA SDK for OpenCL™ Offline Compiler into Error Messages (-Werror)
- 7.17. Forcing a Single Store Ring to Reduce Area at the Expense of Write Throughput to Global Memory (-force-single-store-ring)
- 7.18. Forcing Fewer Read Data Reorder Units to Reduce Area at the Expense of Read Throughput to Global Memory (-num-reorder)
188.8.131.52. Emulating I/O Channels
When you emulate a kernel that has a channel declared with the io attribute, I/O channel input is emulated by reading from a file, and channel output is emulated by writing to a file.
When you run your emulation, the file name used for reading or writing matches the name in the io attribute. For example, if you have a channel declaration as follows, your emulation reads or writes (but not both) to a file called myIOChannel.
channel uint chanA __attribute__((io("myIOChannel")));
I/O channels are unidirectional. You can either read from a channel or write to a channel, but not both. However, you can have separate read channels and write channels with the same io attribute value.
channel uint readChannel __attribute__((io("myIOChannel"))); channel uint writeChannel __attribute__((io("myIOChannel")));
Emulating Reading from an I/O Channel
If a read is issued from a channel with an io attribute called myfile, a read attempt is made on a file on the disk called myfile. If the myfile file does not exist or there is insufficient data to read from the file, the behavior depends on the call type:
- Non-blocking read
- If the file does not exist or there is insufficient data, the read attempt returns with a failure message.
- Blocking read
- If the file does not exist or there is insufficient data, the read attempt blocks your program until the file is created on the disk, or the file contains sufficient data.
Emulating Writing to an I/O Channel
If a write is issued to a channel with an io attribute called myfile, a write attempt is made to a file on the disk called myfile. If the myfile file does not exist, a regular file is created and written to. If the myfile file exists, it is overwritten. If the write fails, the behavior depends on the call type:
- Non-blocking write
- If the write attempt fails, an error is returned.
- Blocking write
- If the write attempt fails, further write attempts are made.
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