The following overview and installation instructions are for professional system integrators building PCs that use Intel® Boxed Processors in the 478-pin package with industry-accepted motherboards, chassis and peripherals. It contains technical information intended to aid in system integration. The terms "Intel Boxed Processors in the 478-pin package" and "Intel Boxed Processors" referenced in this document refer to Intel Boxed Processors in the 478-pin Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA2) package found in the following product families:
Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor Extreme Edition
Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor
Intel® Celeron® D Processor
Intel® Celeron® Processor
|Important Note||This information applies to Intel Boxed Processors manufactured on 0.13 or 0.18 micron process, or 90nm process, and in the 478-pin package.|
- Platform Component Selection
- Integrating Systems Based on Intel Boxed Processors in the 478-pin Package
The Boxed processor in the 478-pin package must be used in a motherboard with a 478-pin micro PGA (mPGA478B) socket. It is important to verify that the specific motherboard model and revision support the specific Boxed processor speed being used. A BIOS upgrade may be required in order to properly recognize and initialize the latest stepping of the Boxed processor. Motherboards must meet the electrical and mechanical specifications of the Boxed processor being integrated. Please refer to the datasheet of the processor you are using.
Motherboard Support for Boxed Processors in the 478-pin package
Ensure that you are using a motherboard that supports the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package. Failure to use an appropriate motherboard may result in unstable system operation as well as performance degradation and may result in running your processor out of specification, which will void your processor warranty. Consult your motherboard manufacturer for compatibility.
Motherboards that support the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package are based on the ATXform factor specification and utilize power supplies that follow the ATX12V power supply design guide. Similarly, microATX form factor motherboards that support the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package utilize power supplies that follow the ATX12V or SFX12V power supply design guides. Both the ATX12V and SFX12V power supply design guides are available on the Form Factors Web site.
Motherboards intended for system integrators will include the processor retention mechanism (Figure 1). Four holes located around the processor socket allow the retention mechanism to attach to the motherboard. System integrators should follow motherboard installation documentation when installing the processor retention mechanism on the motherboard and integrating the motherboard into a chassis. General installation procedures are described in Integrating Systems Based on Intel Boxed Processors in the 478-pin Package.
Figure 1. Retention Mechanism Included with Motherboards
Fan Heatsink Support
The boxed processor includes a high quality unattached fan heatsink specifically designed to provide sufficient cooling to the Boxed processor when used in a suitable chassis environment. The fan power cable must be connected to the motherboard power header as shown in the processor installation notes (included in the boxed processor package).
The motherboard 3-pin header uses two pins to supply +12V (power) and GND (ground). The fan uses the third pin to transmit fan-speed information to motherboards that support fan-speed detection. The motherboard must have a 3-pin fan power header located close to the socket.
|Note||Refer to your motherboard manual for the location of the power header.|
Systems based on the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package must use chassis that comply with the ATX specification (revision 2.01 or later) or microATX specification (revision 1.0 or later), depending on the motherboard form factor. Intel recommends system integrators using ATXform factor motherboards to choose a chassis that complies with the ATX specification (revision 2.01 or later). Likewise, system integrators using microATX form factor motherboards should choose a chassis that complies with the microATX specification (1.0 or later).
The chassis must also support a lower internal ambient temperature than many standard ATX and microATX desktop chassis. The internal chassis temperature for systems based on Boxed processors 2.60 GHz (and below) should be maintained at 40°C (or lower) for chassis in the maximum expected external ambient (which is typically 35°C). Most chassis designed for the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package use extra internal chassis fans to improve airflow. Intel tests chassis with the boxed Intel Boxed Processor and the Intel® Desktop Boards for minimum thermal requirements. These chassis meet Intel's processor specifications with the Intel Desktop Boards. It is strongly recommended that system integrators perform thermal testing on the chassis selected for each configuration of Boxed processor in the 478-pin package-based systems, even when using a chassis on the tested chassis list.
|Note||Systems based on the Intel® Boxed Processor manufactured on 90nm should be integrated with a Thermally Advantaged Chassis which is designed to maintain the internal chassis temperature at 38°C (or lower).|
Chassis that ship with installed power supplies must support either the ATX12Vor SFX12V design guidelines.
Power Supply Selection
Power supplies must comply with either the ATX12V or SFX12V design guidelines (see the Form Factors Web site for details) and supply additional current on the 12V power rail through a new 2x2 connector. Also, additional 3.3V and 5V current is supplied through a separate 1x6 connector, on the ATX12V power supplies (SFX12V power supplies do not have the separate 1x6 connector). All 478-pin-based systems require the standard 2x10, 20-pin ATX power connector as well as the 2x2, 4-pin 12Vconnector. Most ATX form factor-based motherboards with fully loaded system configurations may also require the 1x6, 6-pin connector. Consult the motherboard documentation to determine power supply requirements.
Integrating Systems Based on Boxed processors in the 478-pin Package
Motherboards supporting Intel® Boxed Processors include a manual with installation instructions. Consult this manual in addition to the boxed processor manual before building an Intel Boxed Processor-based system. In addition, the following information can aid system integrators in successfully integrating a system based on the Intel® Boxed Processor in the 478-pin package.
|Note||When integrating an Intel Boxed Processors-based system, be sure to take the proper electrostatic discharge (ESD) precautions. Consider using ground straps, gloves, ESD mats, or other protective measures to avoid damaging the processor and other electrical components in the system.|
Motherboard and Retention Mechanism Installation
Once the motherboard has been installed in the chassis, install the retention mechanism (provided by the motherboard manufacturer) to the motherboard. As a supplement to the motherboard manufacturer's installation instructions, use the following instructions for installing the retention mechanism:
- Remove the four white pushpins (A in Figure 2) from the retention mechanism, if installed (Figure 3). The four black fasteners (B in Figure 2) should remain fully seated in the retention mechanism as shown in Figure 4.
- Place the retention mechanism on the motherboard, aligning it with the four holes located adjacent to the processor socket (Figure 5). Note that the retention mechanism is symmetrical.
- Secure the retention mechanism to the motherboard by gently pressing down on the black fasteners into the four motherboard holes, until they snap into place (Figure 6).
- Insert all four of the white pushpins in the black fasteners. Complete the retention mechanism installation by pushing all four of the white pushpins fully into each of the black fasteners (Figure 7).
- Gently lift up on the retention mechanism to ensure the base (black fasteners with white pushpins installed) is secured to the motherboard.
|Figure 2. |
White Pushpins (A) and Black Fasteners (B)
|Figure 3. |
Remove White Pushpins from Retention Mechanism
|Figure 4. |
Black Fastener Fully Seated in Retention Mechanism
|Figure 5. |
Align Retention Mechanism to Motherboard Holes
|Figure 6. |
Gently Pressing Down on Black Fasteners into Motherboard Holes
|Figure 7. |
Push Down on White Pushpins to Complete Installation
Boxed Processor Installation
As a supplement to the manual provided with the boxed processor, install the processor and fan heatsink in the following manner. Open the processor socket handle (see Figure 8) and carefully align the processor using the pin one markings on the processor and socket for reference, being careful not to bend any of the processor pins. The processor pin one marking on the substrate of the FC-PGA2 package should be aligned with pin one mark on the socket (Figure 9). Insert the processor into the socket and close the socket handle.
|Figure 8. |
Open Socket Handle
|Figure 9. |
Align Pin One on
Processor to Pin
One on Socket
Use the following instructions for installing the fan heatsink:
- The Intel® Boxed Processor will have thermal interface material attached to the bottom of the heatsink shown in Figure 11 (Be careful not to damage the thermal interface material.)
- Align the fan heatsink and clip assembly (A in Figure 10) with the retention mechanism (the fan heatsink is symmetrical) and place it on the processor (as shown in Figure 11). Allow the heatsink base to compress (without rotating or twisting) the thermal interface material over the surface of the processor's integrated heat spreader.
- With the clip levers (C in Figure 10) in the upward position, push down on all four clip frame corners (D in Figure 10) to secure the clip frame latches (E in Figure 10) to the retention mechanism hooks (F in Figure 10), as shown in Figure 12.
Note Make sure the processor fan cable is free from any obstruction and is not trapped under clip frame (B in Figure 10). Note It is important to not allow the heatsink to rotate or twist on the processor's integrated heat spreader. Securing the fan heatsink while closing the clip levers will ensure the thermal interface material is not damaged and the processor will operate correctly.
Follow these steps, for closing the clip levers and ensuring the thermal interface material is not damaged:
- Make sure to close the clips levers in opposing directions, one at a time (levers require force to be completely closed), as shown in Figure 13a. First, close the clip lever (1 in Figure 13b), while holding the topside of the fan heatsink with your other hand (A in Figure 13b).
- Then, close the clip lever (2 in Figure 13c), while holding the topside of the fan heatsink with your other hand (B in Figure 13c).
- Once the clip levers are closed, verify that the heatsink is securely retained and that the clip frame latches are properly engaged with the retention mechanism hooks.
Note When installed, the fan heatsink and clip assembly may cause the motherboard to slightly bend or flex. This provides the proper mechanical support for the processor (with attached fan heatsink and clip assembly) and helps prevent against damage during system shipment.
- Lastly, connect the processor fan cable to the motherboard fan power header (Figure 14). Consult the motherboard manual to determine the correct fan header to use.
|Figure 10. Fan Heatsink and Clip Assembly Terminology|
|Figure 11. Align Fan Heatsink and Clip Assembly||Figure 12. Push Down Clip Frame Corners to Secure to Retention Mechanism Hooks|
|Figure 13a. Close Clip Levers, One at a Time||Figure 13b. Close Clip Lever (1), While Holding the Topside of Fan Heatsink (A)|
|Figure 13c. Close Clip Lever (2), While Holding the Topside of Fan Heatsink (B)||Figure 14. Connect Fan Cable to Motherboard|
Boxed Processor Removal
Every time the heatsink is removed from the processor, it is critical that the thermal interface material be replaced, in order to ensure proper thermal transfer to the boxed processor fan heatsink.
|Note||Be sure to take the proper electrostatic discharge (ESD) precautions (ground straps, gloves, ESD mats, or other protective measures) to avoid damaging the processor and other electrical components in the system.|
|Caution ||If you find that considerable force is required to remove the boxed processor assembly, consider wearing gloves to protect your hands and take care to keep your hands away from any metal edges on the chassis when removing components.|
Thermal Interface Material Attached to the Heatsink
Intel does not recommend the removal of the thermal interface material located on the bottom of the boxed processor fan heatsink. Removal of this material may cause damage to the processor and will void the boxed processor warranty. If you must remove and re-use the fan heatsink, it will require replacement. Also, if the thermal interface material is at all damaged, you must also replace the fan heatsink. Contact Intel Customer Support to receive a replacement fan heatsink.
Thermal Interface Material in an Applicator
Using the boxed processor without properly applying the included thermal interface material may cause damage to the processor and will void the boxed processor warranty. If you must remove and re-use the fan heatsink, a new application of thermal interface material is required. Contact Intel Customer Support to receive additional thermal interface material in an applicator.
Follow these steps to remove the boxed processor from the system:
- Turn off the system, unplug and remove the power cable from the system.
- Make the processor area accessible and unplug the processor fan heatsink power cable from the motherboard connector.
- Open the clip levers (C in Figure 10), one at a time, in opposing directions. Place the clip levers in the upward position (as shown in Figure 15).
- Use a #1 small flathead screwdriver to unhook the clip frame latches (E in Figure 10) from the retention mechanism hooks (F in Figure 10). Steps (5) through (7) will describe the method for unhooking the clip frame latches from the retention mechanism hooks.
Note Be careful not to damage the motherboard when using the screwdriver.
- Starting from 1 in Figure 15, from the topside of the clip frame (B in Figure 10), insert the screwdriver in the small notch near the clip frame corner (D in Figure 10) as shown in Figure 16.
Note The screwdriver must be positioned carefully between the clip frame and the retention mechanism hook (side view shown in Figure 17). Once in place the screwdriver must be sitting on top of the clip frame latch.
- Push down on the clip frame latch and simultaneously rotate the screwdriver towards the fan heatsink, to unhook the clip frame latch from the retention mechanism hook (side view shown in Figure18).
- Repeat steps (5) through (7) for each clip frame latch until all clip frame latches are no longer attached to the retention mechanism hooks.
Be aware that the clip frame latches may re-attach to the retention mechanism hooks.
To prevent this, follow these steps:
- First, unhook the clip frame latches on the same side of the fan heatsink (1 and 2 in Figure 15).
- Once 1 and 2 in Figure 15 are unhooked, use your free hand to hold the top of one of the clip frame corners (1 in Figure 15), pulling the clip frame slightly upward (prevents the clip frame latches from re-attaching). Then, unhook the clip frame latch on the other side of the fan heatsink (3 in Figure 15).
- Now, switch and hold the top of the other clip frame corner (2 in Figure 15) with your free hand, pulling the clip frame slightly upward (prevents the clip frame latches from re-attaching). Then, unhook the clip frame latch on the other side of the fan heatsink (4 in Figure 15).
- After all the clip frame latches are unhooked from the retention mechanism hooks, slowly remove the fan heatsink from the processor and retention mechanism. Slightly twisting the heatsink back and forth in the retention mechanism may make the heatsink easier to remove by lessening the surface tension force of thermal interface material between the processor and heatsink.
- Once the heatsink is removed, lift the processor socket handle to release the processor pins from the socket. Carefully lift the processor out of the socket (being careful not to bend any of the processor pins).
|Figure 15. |
Sequence for Unhooking Clip Frame Latches
|Figure 16. |
Insert Screwdriver From Topside of Clip Frame, Near Clip Frame Corner
|Figure 17. |
(Side View) Position Screwdriver Between the Retention Mechanism Hook and Clip Frame, While Resting on Clip Frame Latch
|Figure 18. |
(Side View) Push Down on Clip Frame Latch and Rotate Screwdriver Towards Fan Heatsink, to Unhook Clip Frame Latch From Retention Mechanism Hook
Operating System Support
Nearly all modern operating systems designed for the Intel® Architecture have support for the Boxed processor, although some may require specific versions or processor support files. Many Microsoft operating systems like Windows 98SE*, Windows NT 4* with Service Pack 5, Windows 2000*, Windows ME*, and Windows XP* support the Boxed processor. Linux* distributions based on the Linux 2.4 core support the processor. Also, many other vendors have support for the Celeron processor in their operating systems. System integrators should verify that the operating system they have selected supports the Boxed processor.
All operating systems that support the SSE instructions that were first introduced with the Intel® Pentium III Processor will also support the SSE2 instructions introduced with the Boxed processor in the 478-pin package. To experience the power of the SSE2 instructions, it is critical that system integrators install drivers and software that have been optimized for the Boxed processor's SSE2 instructions. For example, for maximum system performance, system integrators using Microsoft operating systems that support DirectX* should load DirectX 8 (or higher).
With specific drivers that use the SSE2 instructions, graphics accelerators, audio hardware and software, and other system resources can experience substantial performance gain. It is critical that systems also use APIs that use SSE2 instructions to achieve maximum performance. Two examples are Microsoft's DirectX 8* (or higher) and Open GL 1.2 (or higher). Most major graphics accelerator vendors have optimized drivers that use the SSE2 instructions. Graphics card vendors typically highlight support changes with new driver releases. Download and install the latest drivers (dated later than October 2000) from the vendor's Web site. Also, verify that the driver version contains optimization for the Intel® Pentium 4 Processor.
Many applications also use the SSE2 instructions to experience the breakthrough performance of the Intel® Pentium 4 Processor. System integrators should contact software vendors to verify support and determine version information.
System performance is greatly affected by proper operating system and driver installation processes. For example, it is important to install the latest Intel® Chipset Software Installation Utility immediately after installing most Microsoft operating systems to ensure proper drivers for the chipset are installed prior to installation of other drivers. System integrators should confirm Intel® Boxed Processor-based systems are optimally configured and integrated.
Intel® Boxed Processor-based systems require proper integration. System integrators that follow the guidelines in this document will experience higher customer satisfaction by providing higher quality systems.