Fun Facts: Exactly How Small (and Cool) is 22 nanometers?

Fun facts: Exactly how small (and cool) is 22 nanometers.
• The original transistor, built by Bell Labs in 1947, was large enough that it was pieced together by hand. By contrast, more than 100 million, 22nm, tri-gate transistors could fit onto the head of a pin.
• More than 6 million, 22nm, tri-gate transistors could fit in the period at the end of this sentence.
• A 22nm tri-gate transistor’s gates are so small, you could fit more than 4000 of them across the width of a human hair.
• If a typical house shrunk as transistors have, you would not be able to see a house without a microscope. To see a 22nm feature with the naked eye, you would have to enlarge a chip to be larger than a house.
• Compared to Intel’s first microprocessor, the 4004, introduced in 1971, a 22nm CPU runs over 4000 times as fast and each transistor uses about 5000 times less energy. The price per transistor has dropped by a factor of about 50,000.
• A 22nm transistor can switch on and off well over 100 billion times in one second. It would take you around 2000 years to flick a light switch on and off that many times.
• It’s one thing to design a tri-gate transistor but quite another to get it into high volume manufacturing. Intel’s factories produce over 5 billion transistors every second. That’s 150,000,000,000,000,000 transistors per year, the equivalent of over 20 million transistors for every man, woman, and child on earth.

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