Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT) for Directed I/O (Intel® VT-d), specialized hardware capabilities built into Intel® processors is the foundation for DMA protection on Thunderbolt™ ports that helps prevent physical DMA attacks. These solutions block peripheral devices from unauthorized access to system memory. Leading operating systems such as Windows*, MacOS*, and Linux* have already ...implemented DMA protection using Intel® VT-d. Thunderbolt™ 4 technology certification requires DMA protection based on Intel® VT-d. It is strongly recommended on computers with Thunderbolt™ 3 ports and has been enabled on PCs, where supported, since 2019. Intel recommends standard security practices to reduce the risk of physical attacks. Such practices include using only trusted peripherals and preventing unauthorized physical access to computers. Hard disk drive encryption and a BIOS password can provide additional protection.