Tutorial

  • 2021.1
  • 12/04/2020
  • Public Content

Run a Roofline Analysis

This topic is part of a
tutorial
that shows how to use the automated
Roofline
chart to make prioritized optimization decisions.
Perform the following steps:
Key take-aways from these steps:
  • The Roofline analysis is a combination of the Survey analysis followed immediately by the Trip Counts/FLOPs analysis. The Trip Counts/FLOPs analysis may run three to four times longer than the Survey analysis.
  • The size and color of each
    Roofline
    chart dot represent relative execution time for each loop/function. Large red dots take the most time; small green dots take less time.
  • Horizontal
    Roofline
    chart lines (
    rooflines
    ) indicate compute capacity limitations preventing loops/functions from achieving better performance without some form of optimization.
  • Diagonal
    Roofline
    chart lines indicate memory bandwidth limitations preventing loops/functions from achieving better performance without some form of optimization.
  • A dot cannot exceed the topmost rooflines, as these represent the maximum capabilities of the machine; however, not all loops can utilize maximum machine capabilities.
  • The best candidates for the greatest performance improvement are large, red dots that are farther from the topmost achievable roofline.
  • The
    Roofline
    chart offers a variety of controls to configure appearance and focus on data of interest.

Run a Roofline Analysis

In the
Vectorization Workflow
pane, click the Intel Advisor control: Run analysis 
          control under
Run Roofline
to execute your target application twice to:
  • Measure the hardware limitations of your machine and collect loop/function timings using the Survey analysis.
  • Collect FLOPs data using the Trip Counts and FLOPS analysis - this collection can take three to four times longer than the Survey analysis.
Upon completion, the
Intel Advisor
displays a
Roofline
chart.
If the
Workflow
is not displayed in the Visual Studio IDE: Click the Intel Advisor toolbar icon 
            icon on the
Intel Advisor
toolbar. (It may take a few seconds to display.)

Show/Hide the Roofline Chart

There are several controls to help you show/hide the
Roofline
chart:
Intel Advisor: Roofline Chart & Survey Report
1
Click to toggle between
Roofline
chart view and
Survey Report
view.
2
Click to toggle to and from side-by-side
Roofline
chart and
Survey Report
view.
3
Drag to adjust the dimensions of the
Roofline
chart and
Survey Report
.
For the remainder of this tutorial, view the
Roofline
chart and
Survey Report
side by side.

Get to Know Roofline Chart Data

The
Roofline
chart plots an application's
achieved performance
and
arithmetic intensity
against the machine's
maximum achievable performance
:
  • Arithmetic intensity (x axis) - measured in number of floating-point operations (FLOPs) and/or integer operations (INTOPs) per byte, based on the loop/function algorithm, transferred between CPU/VPU and memory
  • Performance (y axis) - measured in billions of floating-point operations per second (GFLOPS) and/or billions of integer operations per second (GINTOPS)
In general:
  • The size and color of each
    Roofline
    chart dot represent relative execution time for each loop/function. Large red dots take the most time, so are the best candidates for optimization. Small green dots take less time, so may not be worth optimizing.
  • Roofline
    chart diagonal lines indicate memory bandwidth limitations preventing loops/functions from achieving better performance without some form of optimization. For example: The
    L1 Bandwidth
    roofline represents the maximum amount of work that can get done at a given arithmetic intensity if the loop
    always
    hits L1 cache. A loop does not benefit from L1 cache speed if a dataset causes it to miss L1 cache too often, and instead is subject to the limitations of the lower-speed L2 cache it
    is
    hitting. So a dot representing a loop that misses L1 cache too often but hits L2 cache is positioned somewhere below the
    L2 Bandwidth
    roofline.
  • Roofline
    chart horizontal lines indicate compute capacity limitations preventing loops/functions from achieving better performance without some form of optimization. For example: The
    Scalar Add Peak
    represents the peak number of add instructions that can be performed by the scalar loop under these circumstances. The
    Vector Add Peak
    represents the peak number of add instructions that can be performed by the vectorized loop under these circumstances. So a dot representing a loop that is not vectorized is positioned somewhere below the
    Scalar Add Peak
    roofline.
  • A dot cannot exceed the topmost rooflines, as these represent the maximum capabilities of the machine; however, not all loops can utilize maximum machine capabilities.
  • The greater the distance between a dot and the highest achievable roofline, the more opportunity exists for performance improvement.
In the following
Roofline
chart representation, loops A and G (large red dots), and to a lesser extent B (yellow dot far below the roofs), are the best candidates for optimization. Loops C, D, and E (small green dots) and H (yellow dot) are poor candidates because they do not have much room to improve or are too small to have significant impact on performance.
This is a visual model, not an actual screenshot, of the Roofline Chart
The
Roofline
chart and
Survey Report
are synchronized: Click a dot in the
Roofline
chart to highlight the corresponding data row in the
Survey Report
, and single-click a data row in the
Survey Report
to make the corresponding dot flash in the
Roofline
chart - as long as the loop contains floating-point operations. Loops without floating-point operations do not appear in the
Roofline
chart.
Mouse over each roofline (line), peak (rectangle), and loop (dot) in your
Roofline
chart to learn more about each chart element.

Get to Know Roofline Chart Controls

There are several controls to help you focus on the
Roofline
chart data most important to you, including the following.
Intel Advisor Cache-Aware Roofline Chart
1
  • Select Loops by Mouse Rect
    : Select one or more loops/functions by tracing a rectangle with your mouse.
  • Zoom by Mouse Rect
    : Zoom in and out by tracing a rectangle with your mouse. You can also zoom in and out using your mouse wheel.
  • Move View By Mouse
    : Move the chart left, right, up, and down.
  • Undo
    or
    Redo
    : Undo or redo the previous zoom action.
  • Cancel Zoom
    : Reset to the default zoom level.
  • Export as x
    : Export the chart as a dynamic and interactive HTML or SVG file that does not require the
    Intel Advisor
    viewer for display. Use the arrow to toggle between the options.
2
Use the
Cores
drop-down toolbar to:
  • Adjust rooflines to see practical performance limits for your code on the host machine.
  • Build roofs for single-threaded applications (or for multi-threaded applications configured to run single threaded, such as one thread-per-rank for MPI applications. (You can use Intel Advisor filters to control the loops displayed in the
    Roofline
    chart; however, the
    Roofline
    chart does not support the
    Threads
    filter.)
Choose the appropriate number of CPU cores to scale roof values up or down:
  • 1 – if your code is single-threaded
  • Number of cores equal or close to the number of threads – if your code has fewer threads than available CPU cores
  • Maximum number of cores – if your code has more threads than available CPU cores
By default, the number of cores is set to the number of threads used by the application (even values only).
You’ll see the following options if your code is running on a multisocket PC:
  • Choose
    Bind cores to 1 socket
    (default) if your application binds memory to one socket. For example, choose this option for MPI applications structured as one rank per socket.
    This option may be disabled if you choose a number of CPU cores exceeding the maximum number of cores available on one socket.
  • Choose
    Spread cores between all n sockets
    if your application binds memory to all sockets. For example, choose this option for non-MPI applications.
3
  • Toggle the display between floating-point (FLOP), integer (INT) operations, and mixed operations (floating-point and integer).
  • If you collected Roofline with Calltacks:
    Enable the display of Roofline with Callstacks additions to the
    Roofline
    chart.
4
Display
Roofline
chart data from other
Intel Advisor
results or non-archived snapshots for comparison purposes.
Use the drop-down toolbar to:
  • Load a result/snapshot and display the corresponding filename in the
    Compared Results
    region.
  • Clear a selected result/snapshot and move the corresponding filename to the
    Ready for comparison
    region.
    Note
    : Click a filename in the
    Ready for comparison
    region to reload the result/snapshot.
  • Save the comparison itself to a file.
    The arrowed lines showing the relationship among loops/functions do not reappear if you upload the comparison file.
Click a loop/function dot in the current result to show the relationship (arrowed lines) between it and the corresponding loop/function dots in loaded results/snapshots.
Intel Advisor: Roofline Comparison
5
Add visual indicators to the Roofline chart to make the interpretation of data easier, including performance limits and whether loops/functions are memory bound, compute bound, or both.
Use the drop-down toolbar to:
  • Show a vertical line from a loop/function to the nearest and topmost performance ceilings by enabling the
    Display roof rulers
    checkbox. To view the ruler, hover the cursor over a loop/function. Where the line intersects with each roof, labels display hardware performance limits for the loop/function.
  • If you collected Roofline for All Memory Levels
    : Visually emphasize the relationships among displayed memory levels and roofs and for a selected loop/function dot by enabling the
    Show memory level relationships
    checkbox.
  • Color the roofline zones to make it easier to see if enclosed loops/functions are fundamentally memory bound, compute bound, or bound by compute and memory roofs by enabling the
    Show Roofline boundaries
    checkbox.
The preview picture is updated as you select guidance options, allowing you to see how changes will affect the Roofline chart’s appearance. Click
Apply
to apply your changes, or
Default
to return the Roofline chart to its original appearance.
Once you have a loop/function's dots highlighted, you can zoom and fit the Roofline chart to the dots for the selected loop/function by once again double-clicking the loop/function or pressing
SPACE
or
ENTER
with the loop/function selected. Repeat this action to return to the original Roofline chart view.
To hide the labeled dots, select another loop/function, or double-click an empty space in the Roofline chart.
6
  • Roofline View Settings:
    Adjust the default scale setting to show:
    • The optimal scale for each
      Roofline
      chart view
    • A scale that accommodates all
      Roofline
      chart views
  • Roofs Settings:
    Change the visibility and appearance of roofline representations (lines):
    • Enable calculating roof values based on single-threaded benchmark results instead of multi-threaded.
    • Click a
      Visible
      checkbox to show/hide a roofline.
    • Click a
      Selected
      checkbox to change roofline appearance: display a roofline as a solid or a dashed line.
    • Manually fine-tune roof values in the
      Value
      column to set hardware limits specific to your code.
  • Loop Weight Representation
    : Change the appearance of loop/function weight representations (dots):
    • Point Weight Calculation
      : Change the
      Base Value
      for a loop/function weight calculation.
    • Point Weight Ranges
      : Change the
      Size
      ,
      Color
      , and weight
      Range (R)
      of a loop/function dot. Click the
      +
      button to split a loop weight range in two. Click the
      -
      button to merge a loop weight range with the range below.
    • Point Colorization
      : color loop/function dots by weight ranges or by type (vectorized or scalar). You can also change the color of loop with no self time.
You can save your Roofs Settings or Point Weight Representation configuration to a JSON file or load a custom configuration.
7
Zoom in and out using numerical values.
8
Click a loop/function dot to:
  • Outline it in black.
  • Display metrics for it.
  • Display corresponding data in other window tabs.
Right-click a loop/function dot or a blank area in the
Roofline
chart to perform more functions, such as:
  • Further simplify the
    Roofline
    chart by filtering out (temporarily hiding a dot), filtering in (temporarily hiding all other dots), and clearing filters (showing all originally displayed dots).
  • Copy data to the clipboard.
9
Show/hide the metrics pane:
  • Review the basic performance metrics in the
    Point Info
    pane.
  • If you collected the Roofline for All Memory Levels
    : Review how efficiently the loop/function uses cache and what memory level bounds the loop/function in the
    Memory Metrics
    pane.
10
Display the number and percentage of loops in each loop weight representation category.

This tutorial uses prepackaged analysis results from this point forward...

...because of tutorial duration and hardware dependency considerations.

Product and Performance Information

1

Performance varies by use, configuration and other factors. Learn more at www.Intel.com/PerformanceIndex.