The following overview and installation instructions are for professional system integrators building PCs that use Intel® Pentium® 4 processors in the 423-pin package with industry-accepted motherboards, chassis, and peripherals. It contains technical information intended to aid in system integration. Boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor product information can be found in the processor product brief and related material.
Integrating an Intel Pentium 4 Processor-Based System
Software and operating system considerations
The Boxed Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor overview
Intel's Pentium 4 Processor, based on the Intel NetBurst® micro-architecture, includes several new performance enhancing features.
- Hyper Pipelined Technology:
A deeper pipeline enables instructions inside the processor to be queued and executed at a much faster rate, and allows the Intel Pentium 4 Processor to achieve the world's highest clock speeds for desktop PCs.
- Streaming SIMD Extensions 2:
Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 consists of 144 new instructions including SIMD double precision floating point, SIMD 128-bit integer, and new cache and memory management instructions. Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 enhances performance to accelerate video, speech, encryption, imaging, and the most demanding of Internet computing, and non-threaded workstation applications.
- 400-MHz Intel NetBurst® Micro-Architecture System Bus:
With three times the bandwidth of previous processors, the 400 MHz system bus speeds the transfer of information from the processor to the rest of the system, improving throughput and performance. This breakthrough technology extends the potential for superior processing speeds to the rest of the system.
- Dynamic Execution:
Extends the Dynamic Execution features found in the previous generation P6 micro-architecture. Improved branch prediction accelerates the flow of work to the processor and helps overcome the deeper pipeline. Very deep out-of-order speculative execution carries out over 100 instructions speculatively, ensuring that the processor's superscalar execution units remain busy, improving overall execution.
- Enhanced Floating Point/Multimedia Unit:
A 128-bit floating-point port and a second port for data movement enable smooth lifelike 3D and graphics.
- Execution Trace Cache:
Advanced L1 instruction cache removes decoder pipeline latency, and caches "decoded" instructions, thus improving efficiency and hit rate to cached instructions. The 12 Kµop portion of the L1 cache supplies decoded instructions into the processor pipeline. There is also an 8 KB data portion of L1 cache.
- Rapid Execution Engine:
The Integer Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) clocked at twice the frequency provides four ALUs of computing bandwidth and allows lower latency execution increasing performance for certain integer operations.
The completely new Intel NetBurst® micro-architecture enables the Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor to achieve breakthrough performance for visual computing, concurrent application environments, and the future of the Internet.
The boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor includes a high quality fan heatsink and thermal interface material for system integration.
Boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor includes either:
* Only available for Boxed Intel® Pentium® 4 Processors 1.4 GHz and above.
- (2) 64-MB PC800 RDRAM* memory modules for a total of 128-MB of system memory
- *(2) 128-MB PC800 RDRAM* memory modules for a total of 256-MB of system memory
- Processor Only w/ no memory included
Included with the boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor
- Intel Pentium 4 Processor
- Thermal interface material (in applicator)
- High quality variable speed fan heatsink.
- Installation instructions and Certificate of Authenticity
- Intel® Inside logo label
The Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor is packaged in the 423-pin OLGA On Interposer (OOI) package. The Organic Land Grid Array (OLGA) core is covered by an Integrated Heat Spreader (IHS) that helps heatsink dissipation to a properly attached fan heatsink.
|Figure 1. Intel Pentium 4 Processor|
423-Pin OOI Package
The boxed processor fan heatsink uses a variable speed fan that increases in speed as the air temperature entering the fan increases. The fan operates at a set speed until the inlet air temperature exceeds the lower set point (see Table 1). The fan speed will continue to increase linearly until the inlet air temperature reaches the higher set point (see Table 1). At temperatures above the higher set point, the fan will operate at its maximum speed. As the fan speed increases, the fan noise increases. System integrators should design systems that ensure that the air temperature around the boxed processor fan heatsink is kept below the lower set point for the lowest noise level. System integrators must never allow the inlet air temperature to exceed the higher set point. Set points vary on various boxed fan heatsinks due to processor technology. Selecting the correct chassis and verifying proper thermal management is critical for integrating a high quality boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based system (see Selecting a Chassis). Figure 2 shows the various internal chassis temperatures and the specific impact on the system noise and performance.
Table 1. Boxed Processor Variable Fan Heatsink Set Points
1 Set point variance is approximately ▒1°C.>
|Internal Chassis Temperature (°C)
||Boxed Processor Fan Heatsink Set Points|
|361 or less
||Fan speed constant at lowest fan speed. Recommended temperature for nominal operating environment.|
||Recommended maximum internal chassis temperature for boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based systems.|
|451 or greater
||Fan speed constant at highest fan speed. Processor Thermal Monitor may become active.|
|Figure 2. Chassis Temperature Affect On Boxed Processor Variable Speed Fan Heatsink Noise|
Identifying a boxed processor
Boxed processor test specifications (or S-Specs) marked on the integrated heat spreader of the Intel Pentium 4 Processor identify the specific stepping and speed information for the processor. Using the boxed processor information table, a system integrator can verify the appropriate speed rating, stepping, and other important information about the processor. The lot number and serial number are also marked on the integrated heat spreader. The lot number should match the number on the processor box label. Once the boxed processor is installed into a system, the fan heatsink covers the integrated heat spreader and all the markings on the processor. The sticker on the box of the boxed processor (that has the processor speed information, test specification, and lot number) can be removed and placed on the inside the system chassis that the processor is installed into. This will allow quick access to the information that is no longer available on the top of the processor when the heatsink is installed. If a system's processor is later upgraded or replaced causing the sticker inside the chassis to have incorrect information, the sticker should be replaced, removed or obviously marked as obsolete to avoid confusion.
Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor-based systems all require specific system boards, chassis, and power supplies. System integrators building systems based on the boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor should use chassis, power supplies, and system boards that are specifically designed for the Intel Pentium 4 Processor.
Selecting a system board
System boards using the Intel® 850 Chipset support the Intel NetBurst® micro-architecture 400-MHz system bus. It is important to verify that the specific system board model and revision support the specific Intel Pentium 4 Processor speed being used. A BIOS upgrade may be required in order to properly recognize and setup to the latest stepping of the Intel Pentium 4 Processor. System boards must meet the electrical and mechanical specifications of the Intel Pentium 4 Processor as documented in the datasheet.
System boards based on the Intel 850 Chipset follow the ATX form-factor specification and utilize power supplies that follow the ATX12V power supply design guide. In addition, system boards that support the boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor directly attach through the processor retention mechanisms (supplied with the system board) to the chassis back plate (see Selecting a Chassis). Four holes located around the processor socket allow four screws (supplied with the chassis) to attach the retention mechanisms to four removable chassis standoffs (supplied with the chassis). System integrators should follow system board installation documentation when integrating a system board into a chassis. General installation procedures (below) may be useful to review prior to building a Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based system.
|Figure 3. Retention Mechanisms and Clips Included with System Boards|
Items Supplied with Intel® 850 Chipset System Boards Intended for System Integrators
- Two processor retention mechanisms
- Two processor clips
- Two continuity RIMMs*
- Manual with installation instructions
- Misc. supporting cables and pieces
Fan heatsink support
The boxed processor includes a high quality unattached fan heatsink specifically designed to provide sufficient cooling to the Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor when used in a suitable chassis environment. The fan power cable must be connected to the system board power header as shown in the processor installation notes (included in the boxed processor package).
The system board 3-pin header uses two pins to supply +12V (power) and GND (ground). The fan uses the third pin to transmit fan-speed information to system boards that support fan-speed detection. The system board must have a 3-pin fan power header located close to the socket. Refer to your system board manual for the location of the power header.
Selecting a chassis
Systems based on the Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor must use chassis that comply with the ATX specification (revision 2.01 or later) and have the Intel Pentium 4 Processor specific mounting support. This mounting support includes four additional holes located in the base plate of the chassis, four removable standoffs, and four screws. The screws must be long enough to securely engage the standoffs when installed in the retention mechanisms through the system board.
The chassis must also support a lower internal ambient temperature than many standard ATX desktop chassis. The internal temperature should be maintained at less than five degrees Celsius higher than the air temperature outside of the chassis. Most chassis designed for the Intel Pentium 4 Processor use extra internal chassis fans to improve airflow. It is strongly recommended that system integrators perform thermal testing on the chassis selected for each configuration of Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based systems.Items Supplied with Chassis Intended for systems based on the Intel Pentium 4 Processor in the 423-pin package:
- Four additional holes in the chassis base plate
- Four additional removable standoffs
- Four additional retention mechanism mounting screws
- One ATX12V power supply
- Additional thermal management (e.g.,ásystem fan)
Chassis that ship with installed power supplies must support the ATX12V design guidelines (see Selecting a power supply).
Selecting a power supply
Integrating an Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor-based system
Power supplies must comply with the ATX12V design guidelines and supply additional current on the 12V power rail through a new 2x2 connector. Also, additional 3.3V and 5V current is supplied through a separate 1x6 connector. All Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based systems require the standard 2x10, 20-pin ATX power connector as well as the new 2x2, 4-pin 12V connector. Most system boards based on the Intel® 850 Chipset will also require the 1x6, 6-pin connector. Consult the system board documentation to determine power supply requirements. Intel tests power supplies to determine a minimum level of electrical compliance to the ATX12V design guidelines.
System boards supporting the boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor include a manual with installation instructions. Consult this manual in addition to the boxed processor manual before building a Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based system. In addition, the following information can aid system integrators in successfully integrating a boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based system.
System board installation
To begin system installation it is critical to verify that the four removable standoffs, which will be used to attach the system board and retention mechanisms, are installed in the chassis base plate.
|Figure 4. Chassis Before Standoff Installation
||Figure 5. Chassis After Standoff Installation|
After completing all other chassis preparation, install the system board into the chassis. Install the two retention mechanisms (provided by system board manufacturer) to the system board and chassis using the longer screws (provided by the chassis manufacturer).
|Figure 6. Installing the Two Retention Mechanisms|
Open the processor socket handle (see Figure 7) and align the processor using the pin one markings on the processor and socket for reference. The processor pin one marking on the interposer of the OOI package should be aligned with pin one mark on the socket. Markings on the integrated heat spreader should not be used for installation alignment. Insert the processor into the socket and close the socket handle. CRITICAL STEP: Use the thermal interface material applicator provided in the boxed processor box to apply all of the thermal interface material to the center of the processor's integrated heat spreader (see Figure 8). Center the fan heatsink over the socket and retention mechanism assembly and allow the heatsink base to compress the thermal interface material over the surface of the processor's integrated heat spreader. Next, install the two clips onto the heatsink and retention mechanisms. To do this, first attach the center tab on the retention mechanism and heatsink. Second, while holding one side of the clip down over the retention mechanism interface tab, push the other side of the clip down over the symmetric retention mechanism tab. It may be necessary to use a flat head screwdriver to complete the clip installation (see Figure 9). Once both clips are installed, verify that the heatsink is securely retained and that the clips are properly engaged with the retention mechanisms. Be sure to plug in the boxed processor fan heatsink to the system board fan power header. Consult the system board manual to determine the correct fan header to use.
|Figure 7. Open Socket Handle
||Figure 8. Apply Thermal Interface Material
||Figure 9. Install Fan Heatsink and Both Clips|
System memory installation
Consult the system board manual for information about system memory installation. The correct placement for the system memory may vary by system board manufacture. Be sure that the memory is completely seated in the memory connectors.
Maintaining and upgrading an Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor-based system
Every time the heatsink is removed from the processor, it is critical that more thermal interface material be applied to the processor's integrated heat spreader in order to insure proper thermal transfer to the boxed processor fan heatsink.
||If you find that considerable force is required to remove the boxed processor assembly, consider wearing gloves to protect your hands and take care to keep your hands away from any metal edges on the chassis when removing components.|
To remove the boxed processor from the system, first make the processor area accessible and unplug the processor fan heatsink power cable from the system board connector. Remove the two clips from the retention mechanisms. This may require the use of a flat head screwdriver. Remove the fan heatsink from the processor and retention mechanisms. Slightly twisting the heatsink back and forth in the retention mechanisms may make the heatsink easier to remove by lessening the surface tension force of thermal interface material between the processor and heatsink. Once the heatsink is removed, lift the processor socket handle to release the processor pins from the socket and carefully lift the processor out of the socket (being careful not to bend any of the processor pins).
System memory upgrades
When upgrading system memory, it is preferable to match the memory speed and type of the memory installed in the system. For example, a system with PC800 RDRAM* should be complimented with more PC800 RDRAM. Although certain combinations may be supported by the chipset (i.e. different memory speeds that default to the lower speed of the two installed), it is critical to verify system board support for any memory combination used (speed, type, size).
Software and operating system considerations
The Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor is a completely different micro-architecture from Intel's prior microprocessors that were based on the P6 micro-architecture. The Intel NetBurst® micro-architecture supports the entire IA32 instruction set including Intel's MMX™ technology and the Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) Extension. It also includes 144 more instructions called the Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 or SSE2. The SSE2 instructions compliment MMX technology and SSE instructions by supplying increased computation capability, support for larger data types (e.g. double-precision floating point numbers and 64-bit packed integer numbers), and several data handling and conversion instructions. In addition to these additions, the Intel NetBurst micro-architecture enhances the P6 micro-architecture's floating-point unit.
Operating system support
Nearly all modern operating systems designed for the Intel® Architecture have support for the Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor, although some may require specific versions or processor support files. Many Microsoft* operating systems like Windows 98 SE*, Windows NT* 4 with Service Pack 5, Windows 2000*, Windows ME*, and Windows XP* support the Intel Pentium 4 Processor. Linux* distributions based on the Linux* 2.4 core support the processor. Also, many other vendors have support for the Intel Pentium 4 Processor in their operating systems. System integrators should verify that the operating system they have selected supports the Intel Pentium 4 Processor.
All operating systems that support the SSE instructions that were first introduced with the Pentium III processor will also support the SSE2 instructions introduced with the Intel Pentium 4 Processor. To experience the power of the SSE2 instructions, it is critical that system integrators install drivers and software that has been optimized for the Intel Pentium 4 Processor's SSE2 instructions. For example, for maximum system performance, system integrators using Microsoft operating systems that support DirectX* should load DirectX 8 or higher.
With specific drivers that use the SSE2 instructions, graphics accelerators, audio hardware and software, and other system resources can experience substantial performance gain. It is critical that system also use APIs that use SSE2 instructions to achieve maximum performance. Two examples are Microsoft's DirectX* 8 and higher and Open GL 1.2 and higher. Most major graphics accelerator vendors have optimized drivers that use the SSE2 instructions. Graphics card vendors typically highlight support changes with new driver releases. Download and install the latest drivers (dated later than October 2000) from the vendor's website. Also, verify that the driver version contains optimization for the Intel Pentium 4 Processor.
Many applications also use the SSE2 instructions to experience the breakthrough performance of the Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor. System integrators should contact software vendors to verify support and determine version information.
System performance is greatly affected by proper operating system and driver installation processes. For example, it is important to install the latest Intel Chipset Software Installation Utility immediately after installing most Microsoft operating systems to ensure proper drivers for the chipset are installed prior to installation of other drivers. System integrators should confirm boxed Intel Pentium 4 Processor-based systems are optimally configured and integrated.
Mechanical support through the chassis
Boxed Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor-based systems require proper integration. System integrators that follow the guidelines in this document will experience higher customer satisfaction by providing higher quality systems. This document has explained the new requirements for
Electrical support from the ATX12V compliant power supply
Thermal dissipation from the variable speed fan heatsink
Software support and optimization
This applies to: