2D/3D Hardware acceleration is the process where the graphics controller computes tasks usually done by the CPU resulting in lower power consumption and longer battery life, while providing a smoother playback of complex content and CPU headroom for multi-tasking.
802.11 A set of standards for communication with computers that are part of a wireless LAN. You may see IEEE in front of 802.11. This stands for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Standard are 802.11n, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a.
AC'97 Audio Codec '97 is a specification for a high quality, 16- or 20-bit audio architecture used in many desktop systems
Access point Stand-alone Wi-Fi hub that allows any computer that has a Wi-Fi network adapter to communicate with another computer and to connect to the Internet. This device is typically used in an enterprise or corporate environment with a large number of users.
AC/DC power adapter A device that converts AC power (electrical outlet power) to DC power (battery power)
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface is a specification for power management
Adapter A device used to connect two different components by matching the physical or electrical characteristics of each component
Ad hoc network A communication configuration in which every computer has the same capabilities, and any computer can initiate a communication session. Also known as a peer-to-peer or computer-to-computer network.
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port is a port used to connect a computer graphics card to the motherboard
AHCI Advanced Host Controller Interface is a specification that defines communication between a storage controller and Serial ATA hard drives
Alpha Blending A graphics term where the material property of transparency or opacity is added to an object.
Alpha Stippling A graphics term that gives a screen door effect by allowing only partial pixels from the source surface to appear over the destination surface.
Ambient When referring to temperature, ambient refers to the temperature of the surrounding air
AMT Intel® Active Management Technology is a feature of specific Intel processors that allows IT to locate, protect, and heal the computer systems on their network
AP Access Point, a device that connects wireless devices to another network. For example, a wireless LAN, Internet modem or others.
API Application Programming Interface is an interface that allows two independent computer programs to communicate with each other
APM Advanced Power Management is an API that enables an operating system to work with the BIOS to achieve power management
ASF Alert Standards Format is a specification for technologies that are used to allow a computer system to be remotely managed and controlled even if an operating system is not present
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit is an integrated circuit that has been customized for a particular use
Asymmetric mode This mode is used when only one DIMM is installed or the memory capacities are unequal. Also known as single-channel mode.
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment is an interface between storage devices such as hard drives and a computer
ATAPI Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface is a way for CD-ROM devices and tape devices to connect to a computer
ATX Advanced Technology Extended is a motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 9.6x12 inches
Authentication Verifies the identity of a user logging onto a network. Passwords, digital certificates, smart cards and biometrics are used to prove the identity of the client to the network. Passwords and digital certificates are also used to identify the network to the client.
Bit The smallest unit of memory storage.
Bitmap A flat 2D picture, or a texture map. Most 3D systems are capable of combining 2D bitmaps and 3D objects on the screen.
Bit Rate The total number of bits (ones and zeros) per second that a network connection can support. Note that this bit rate will vary, under software control, with different signal path conditions.
Bluetooth A wireless specification that provides a method for devices such as mobile phones, laptops, computers, and printers to connect and share information with one another over a short-range radio frequency
BOC Boxed Order Code is the product code for a boxed Intel® processor
Broadband Wi-Fi Router Stand-alone Wi-Fi hub that allows any computer that has a Wi-Fi network adapter to communicate with another computer and to connect to the Internet. This device is typically used in a home or small-office environment with a relatively small number of users.
BTX Balanced Technology Extended is a motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 12.8x10.5 inches
Buffered memory A type of memory module that has a register between the DRAM modules and the system's memory controller. Buffered memory is also called registered memory, it is more stable than unbuffered memory, but also more expensive. Buffered memory is mainly used in servers and workstations.
Byte A unit of memory storage that is equal to 8 bits.
Certificate Used for client authentication. A certificate is registered on the authentication server (for example, RADIUS server) and used by the authenticator.
Channel A marketing term for the distribution chain for selling and delivering a product or service to the customers
Chassis The framework on a computer that supports its components including the motherboard, hard drives, and memory
Chipset The group of microchips on a motherboard that allow all the components to communicate with the processor
CIR Consumer Infrared is an infrared protocol that allows the use of remote control with computers*
Client A computer or application that remotely accesses a service on another computer (known as a server) using a network
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor is a type of integrated circuit
Connector A device used to carry electrical power
CPU Central Processing Unit is another name for processor
CPU ID An earlier revision of utilities such as the Intel® Frequency ID Utility and the Intel® Processor ID Utility
CRC Cycle Redundancy Check. An error detecting code.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube is an analog monitor
CUI Common User Interface is a term for the user interface used to manage Intel® Graphics Driver
DDR2 Double data rate type 2 memory, double pumps the data bus. DDR2 allows higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at half the speed of the data bus.
DDR3 Double Data Rate Type 3 memory is a type of memory with a high bandwidth interface, and has been in use since 2007.
Density A measure of the quantity of information bits that can be stored on a storage medium. Higher density allows greater volumes of data to be stored in the same physical space.
DFP Digital Flat Panel is a type of video connector for flat panel displays
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol that allows a computer to automatically get a network address
DIMM Dual in-line memory modules have separate electrical contacts on each side of the module and use a 64-bit data path.
DirectX* A set of Microsoft* APIs for handling tasks related to items such as games and video
Discrete graphics The graphics controller is not built into the chipset but is a separate component
Dithering A graphics term where colors are intentionally mixed of adjacent pixels. Dithering is usually needed for 8-bit color and sometimes for 16-bit. It allows a limited color set to approximate a broader range, by mixing groups of varying-color pixels in a semi-random pattern. Without dithering, color gradients like sky or sunset tend to show "banding" artifacts.
DIY Do It Yourself is someone who does a task themselves rather than relying on a professional
DMA Direct memory access is a feature of computers that allows a device to access system memory without relying on the CPU to transfer the data.
DNS Domain Name System is a system that maps domain names such as www.intel.com to IP addresses
Double-sided A memory module where DRAM chips are on both sides of the module.
DRAM Dynamic random-access memory is a type of memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor in an integrated circuit.
Driver Software written for a specific operating system and used by that operating system to communicate with a specific hardware device
Dual-channel mode This mode is enabled when the installed memory capacities of both DIMM channels are equal. Also known as interleaved mode.
Dual-core A processor that combine two independent cores in a single package
DVI Digital Video Interface is a type of video connector for display devices such as flat panel displays
DVMT Dynamic Video Memory Technology is a system memory that is dynamically allocated as video memory
ECC Error-correcting code allows data to be checked for errors and corrected when required.
EDID Extended Display Identification Data is data given from a display device to a graphics driver that defines its capabilities
eDP Embedded DisplayPort is an interface that is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor or television set.
EEPROM Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers.
EFI BIOS Extensible Firmware Interface BIOS is a newer BIOS specification
EHCI Enhanced Host Controller Interface is a high speed controller standard
EMI Electro Magnetic Interference is electrical interference that can interfere with communications
Encryption Scrambling data so that only the authorized recipient can read it. Usually a key is needed to interpret the data.
Energy Star* Energy Star* is a program run by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy that promotes energy efficient products
e-SATA External Serial ATA* is an external interface for SATA devices
ESD Electrostatic Discharge is the transfer of a static charge between two objects
Express Chipset Part of the product name for Intel chipsets such as the Intel® G33 Express Chipset
Express Chipset family Part of the product name for a group of Intel chipsets that are all in the same family of chipsets (for example, the Intel® 3 Series Chipset family includes chipsets such as the Intel® G33 Express Chipset, the Intel® G35 Express Chipset, and the Intel® P31 Express Chipset)
FB-DIMM Fully buffered dual in-Line memory module is a type of computer memory that includes an advanced memory buffer between the memory controller and the memory module; usually used in server environments.
Firmware A computer program that is inside a hardware device
Flash Flash memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that can be erased and reprogrammed
FLOP Floating-Point Operations per Second. A measure of a computer's performance.
Fogging A graphics term where to add the effect of density to the atmosphere. Objects farther away from the viewer appears more "cloudy" or "foggy."
Form factor Form factor* is a standard size and shape for a computer motherboard
FSB Front Side Bus is the physical component that carries information between the computer's processor and other components such as system memory
GB A unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,024 megabytes (or 1,073,741,824 bytes).
GHz (Gigahertz) A unit of frequency equal to 1,000,000,000 cycles per second.
GM Part of the product name for specific mobile Intel chipsets with integrated graphics
GMA Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator (Intel® GMA) is part of the product name for specific Intel graphics controllers such as the Intel GMA 900
GMCH Graphics and Memory Controller Hub is the chipset component that handles communication between the CPU and all other devices
Graphics controller A term used to describe the graphics hardware in a computer
Ground A return path for electrical current
GUI Graphical User Interface is a user interface based on graphical icons
HD Audio Intel® High Definition Audio is the audio architecture standard that replaces AC'97
HDCP High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection is a copy protection scheme to prevent data from being copied or shared illegally
HDD Hard Disk Drive is another name for hard drive
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface is a digital media interface for Consumer Electronics devices that allows a single cable to be used for both audio and video
HDTV High Definition TV is a TV that typically has a higher quality aspect ratio and therefore higher quality video output than standard TVs
Header Data that includes information about the message being transmitted but is not the message itself (e.g. in email, the header might include the sender and recipient's email addresses)
Heatsink An object used to absorb heat from a processor
Hotspot An area with wireless Internet access
HTPC Home Theater PC is a device that combines the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, music playback and digital video recording.
Hyper-Threading Technology Hyper-Threading Technology is technology proprietary to Intel that allows different parts of the CPU to work on different tasks simultaneously
IA64 IA-64 often refers to Itanium® architecture. Intel® 64 architecture is the 64-bit implementation of the x86 architecture.
ICH I/O controller hub
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics is another name for ATA
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers* is an international organization concerned with advancing the theory and practice of technology related to electricity
INF A text file that contains all the information needed in order to install a piece of software or a driver that controls a hardware device
Infrastructure Network Wi-Fi network centered around an access point (AP) or broadband Wi-Fi router. In this environment, the AP not only provides communication with the wired network, but also mediates Wi-Fi network traffic in the immediate neighborhood.
Integrated circuit A semiconductor device that includes many transistors and electrical circuits.
Integrated graphics The graphics controller is built into the chipset.
Intelฎ 64 Intelฎ Extended Memory 64 Technology
Interference Anything that alters or disrupts a message as it travels between the sender and the receiver.
Interleaved mode This mode is enabled when the installed memory capacities of both DIMM channels are equal. Also known as dual-channel mode.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) Subscribers obtain access to the Internet from their homes, small businesses or corporate networks by paying these providers for service.
Interrupt A signal from hardware or software that indicates that an event needs attention or processing.
I/O controller hub The chipset component that handles communication with components such as the hard drives and communicates with the CPU via the MCH.
Jack sensing The technology that allows an audio controller to detect that a device has been connected to an audio jack.
JEDEC Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) - an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body.
Jumper A piece of conductor that is used to enclose jumper pins and complete the circuit.
L2 cache Slightly larger and slower than L1 cache, this is the second level of cache used by the CPU
L3 cache Slightly larger and slower than L2 cache, this is the third level of cache used by the CPU
LAN Local Area Network is a high-speed, low-error data network that covers a small geographic area such as an office or school
Latency Delays in transmitting data between the processor and memory; often measured in memory bus clock cycles.
LBA Logical Block Addressing. A common scheme used for specifying the location of blocks of data stored on computer storage devices.
LCD Liquid Crystal Display is a type of flat panel display
Lead-free Part of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive* (also known as RoHS) in the European Union that restricts the use of certain hazardous substances when manufacturing specific electronic or electrical equipment
LED Light Emitting Diode is a small light source
LFP Local Flat Panel refers to a flat panel display on a notebook computer
LVDS Low-Voltage Differential Signaling is an electrical digital signaling system that can run at very high speeds over inexpensive twisted-pair copper cables; used to transport video data from graphics adapters to computer monitors, particularly flat panels in notebook computers.
MB A unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,048,576 bytes.
Mbps Megabits per second, has a transmission speed of 1,000,000 bits per second.
MCH Memory Controller Hub is the chipset component that handles communication between the CPU, memory, AGP or PCI Express, and the ICH.
MHz Megahertz, is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second.
Micro-ATX A motherboard form factor where the motherboard size maximum is 9.6x9.6 inches.
Microprocessor A processor on a single integrated circuit
Mini-ITX A motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 6.7x6.7 inches.
Mini-PCIe Also known as PCI Express Mini Card; a form factor developed by PCI-SIG, these cards are typically 30x50.96 mm.
Mip Mapping A graphics term where viewing a distant texture-mapped object in a 3D world, many texels (texture elements) make up each pixel that you see on the screen. The textures often appear aliased or distorted, if point sampling, the most common texture mapping technique, is used. Mip-mapping solves that problem by pre-computing (that is, prefiltering) different levels of detail of your texture image and by accessing the appropriate level according to the object's distance from the camera. For example, a texture image that is 16x16 texels has four more mip-maps at lower resolutions, 8x8, 4x4, 2x2 and 1x1. Bilinear mip-mapping chooses the closest mip-map image to your pixel's level of detail, and then performs a bilinear interpolation upon that texture image to get the color value for the pixel.
MLC Multi-Level Cell; a memory element capable of storing more than a single bit of information.
Modem DSL, cable or other hardware types connected to both the AP/router and external line leading to an Internet Service Provider.
Motherboard A board to which the primary components of a computer are connected.
mSATA Mini-SATA is a form factor for SATA devices; typically used in netbooks or other small form factor systems.
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures is the average time between system failures.
Network Name Also called a SSID, it identifies your network. It is a unique name and controls access to a given network. The network name can be up to 32 characters and is case sensitive.
NIC Network Interface Card is a piece of hardware that allows computers to communicate over a network.
Non-volatile memory A type of computer memory that can retain its contents even when it is not powered on.
Northbridge Another name for MCH
ODM Original Device Manufacturer is the company that manufactured a device that is being sold by another company
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer is the company that manufactured a product that is being sold by another company
OHCI Open Host Controller Interface is an interface that allows a USB or FireWire controller to communicate with the operating system.
Open authentication Allows any device network access. If encryption is not enabled on the network, any device that knows the Service Set Identifier (SSID) of the access point can gain access to the network.
OpenGL Open Graphics Library is a specification that defines an API for writing applications that produce 2D or 3D computer graphics.
Optical disk drive A type of disk drive that uses laser in order to read and write data.
Option ROM Firmware that is called by the system BIOS in order to communicate with a hardware device.
OROM Option ROM.
OS Operating System is the software that manages both the hardware and software on a computer.
PATA An IDE standard for connecting storage devices like hard drives.
PBA Printed Board Assembly (for Server Boards and Components)
PCH Platform Controller Hub
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect is a computer bus that is used to attach devices to a motherboard.
PCIe PCI Express* is a specification for computer expansion cards.
Peer-to-Peer mode A wireless network structure that allows wireless clients to communicate directly with each other without using an access point.
Peripherals A piece of computer hardware, typically optional and connected externally, that is added to a computer.
Pixel A graphics term that is short for PIcture ELement. A pixel is the smallest unit that can be addressed and given a color or intensity. The pixel is represented by some number of bits (usually 8, 16, 24, or 32) in the frame buffer.
Plasma Plasma display is a type of flat panel display
PM Part of the product name for specific mobile Intel chipsets without integrated graphics.
PnP Plug and Play is a feature of computers that allows a device to be added without reconfiguration or the installation of device drivers.
POST Power-On Self-Test is the term for a computer's pre-boot sequence.
Power management A way for a computer to save power by turning off certain components of the computer when not in use.
Power supply A device that provides electrical power.
Preamble A term that is used in telecommunications to describe the introduction to a message or header.
Preferred network One of the networks that has been configured. Such networks are listed under Preferred networks on the Wireless Networks tab of the Wireless Network Connection Properties (Windows* XP environment).
Processor The computer component that interprets all instructions.
Proc ID Intel® Processor Identification Utility is a utility developed by Intel Corporation to identify the processor inside a computer system.
Product brief A document that provides product information such as an overview, benefits, features, and system requirements.
Profile Data and configuration information that is associated with a wireless network.
Protocol A set of rules that govern how data is sent over a communications channel.
PSU Power Supply Unit.
PXE Preboot Execution Environment is an environment to boot computers using a network interface independently of data storage devices (like hard disks) or installed operating systems.
RAM Random Access Memory is system memory
Rendering A graphics term that is also known as Rasterization. It is the process of translating high-level database descriptions to pixels on the screen. Rendering consists of a number of steps, including: Setup, Visibility, Texture Mapping, Shading, and Smoothing.
Registered memory A type of memory module that has a register between the DRAM modules and the system memory controller. Registered memory, also called buffered memory, is more stable than unbuffered memory, but also more expensive. Registered memory is mainly used in servers and workstations.
RFID Radio-Frequency Identification is an identification method that stores identification data on objects and uses radio waves to retrieve the data.
RMA Return Material Authorization is a term used to refer to the process where the recipient of a product arranges to return a defective product to the supplier for repair or replacement or credit
Roaming A term used in wireless to refer to the concept of extending service to a geographical location that is outside the geographical coverage area provided by the home network.
Router A device that routes data between different networks.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface is a set of standards for physically connecting computers and devices such as hard drives, and for transferring data between them.
SDRAM Synchronous dynamic random access memory is a type of memory that is synchronized with the system bus.
Server A computer that performs a service to one or more computers or applications (known as clients).
SFX A form factor for power supplies
Shared key An encryption key known only to the receiver and sender of data. This is also referred to as a pre-shared key.
SIMM Single in-line memory modules have memory modules have contacts on both sides that are redundant and use a 32-bit data path.
Single-channel mode This mode is used when only one DIMM is installed or the memory capacities are unequal. Also known as asymmetric mode.
Single-sided A memory module where DRAM chips are found on only one side of the module.
Single Sign On Single Sign On feature set allows the 802.1X credentials to match your Windows log on user name and password credentials for wireless network connections.
SLC Single Level Cell; storing one bit of information per cell.
SMART Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology is a technology for hard drives that monitors various reliability indicators in order to try to anticipate failures.
SMBIOS System BIOS
SO-DIMM Small outline dual in-line memory module about half the size of a regular DIMM. This memory is often used in small systems such as notebooks or systems with Mini-ITX motherboards.
Southbridge Another name for ICH
SPD (Serial Presence Detect) A standardized way to automatically access information about a computer memory module; SPD is a memory hardware feature that makes it possible for the computer to know what memory is present, and what timings to use to access the memory.
S/PDIF Sony/Phillips Digital Interface is a standard file format for carrying digital audio signals.
Specular Highlighting A graphics term that adds the effect of a "hot spot" on an object which corresponds to the shininess of its material.
SSD Solid-State Drive
SSID The service set identification, also known as the network name, identifies your network. It is a unique name and controls access to a given network. The SSID can be up to 32 characters and is case sensitive.
sSpec The specification number for an Intel processor
sSpec This is the 5 digit alphanumeric number inscribed on the top of the processor. It usually begins with the letter "s".
System BIOS Another term for BIOS
System bus Another name for front side bus (FSB)
TB (terabyte) A unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,024 gigabytes (or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes).
TCP Transmission Control Protocol is an internet protocol that delivers a stream of data from sender to receiver
TDP Thermal Design Power or Thermal Design Point is the maximum amount of power that a computer's cooling system must dissipate
TFX A form factor for a power supply used in a computer case
Thermally advantaged chassis An enclosure for computers that can maintain a specific ambient internal temperature with specific Intel® processors
Thermal solution The combination of the heatsink and fan used to cool a processor
TIM Thermal Interface Material is a paste or a pad that is applied between the CPU and heatsink and allows a more complete transfer of heat between the thermal solution and processor.
TPM Trusted Platform Module
TPS Technical Product Specification is a document that specifies the board layout, components, connectors, power, environmental requirements, etc.
Transistor A device used in semiconductors to amplify or switch electronic signals.
TRIM allows an operating system to inform a solid-state drive (SSD) of the blocks of data that are no longer in use.
UI User Interface is the graphical, textual, and auditory information presented to a user by a computer program and the methods, whether keystrokes, mouse movements, or touchscreen selections that are used by the user to control that program.
UNDI Universal Network Device Interface is an API for network cards.
Unbuffered memory Memory modules where there is no hardware register between the memory controller and the RAM chips. Unbuffered memory is the opposite of registered or buffered memory, and is usually used in desktop systems.
USB Universal Serial Bus* is a connectivity specification that allows peripheral devices such as scanners, printers, and memory sticks to be plugged into the computer and configured automatically.
Verified by Intel® A program between Intel, ODMs, and notebook component suppliers to enhance opportunities for customizable build-to-order notebook solutions.
VGA Video Graphics Array is the 640x480 video resolution
Video BIOS The BIOS for the graphics hardware
Volatile memory A type of memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. When power is off or interrupted, the stored memory is lost.
VRAM Video RAM is a type of memory that is used to store the frame buffer for some graphics cards. VRAM is also called video memory or graphics memory.
WDDM Windows* Display Driver Model is a display driver architecture* supported in Microsoft Windows Vista*
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature used to provide data security that is equivalent to that of a typical wired LAN. When WEP is enabled, all stations (clients and access points) are required to have the same WEP key. Network access is denied to anyone who does not have the correct key.
WHQL Windows* Hardware Quality Labs is a testing process* that involves running a set of tests on hardware or software and then submitting the results to Microsoft* for review
Wi-Fi Wireless-Fidelity is a wireless technology brand that is owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance*
WiMAX WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access.
Wireless client The software that controls a wireless adapter.
Wireless gateway - see gateway.
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network is two or more computers that are linked together without wires.
WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature used to provide data security that is equivalent to that of a typical wired LAN. It provides stronger security than WEP through enhanced encryption and user authentication.
XD bit Execute Disable Bit
XD technology The Execute Disable Bit capability of Intel processors that is designed to increase overall system security.
XMP Intelฎ Extreme Memory Profile is a JEDEC SPD extension for DDR3 SDRAM DIMMs to encode performance memory timings.
XOR a digital logic gate that implements an exclusive or.
XPDM Windows XP* Display Driver Model is a display driver architecture supported in Microsoft Windows 2000 and Microsoft Windows* XP (also referred to as XDDM).