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8255A/82C55A Device Description
 
Technical questions and answers

Q1. What is the device?
A1. The 8255A/82C55A interfaces peripheral I/O devices to the microcomputer system bus. It is programmable by the system software. It has a 3-state bi-directional 8-bit buffer which interfaces the 8255A/82C55A to the system data bus.

Q2. Are there any Application Notes, Tech Bits, or Errata?
A2. Ap-15, 8255 Programmable Peripheral Interface Applications, shows software and flow charts for modes. There are Tech-Bits for Reading from Output Ports and a Port Hold Device Description found in Lotus Notes. ASMO Apps also has a Tech-Bit on the World Wide Web concerning interfacing two 8255A's together.

Q3. Why is the 8255A/82C55 needed?
A3. It reduces the external logic normally needed to interface peripheral devices. The 8255A/82C55A replaces a significant percentage of the logic required to support a variety of byte oriented input/output interfaces.

Q4. What peripheral devices can work with the 8255A/82C55A?
A4. Printers, keyboards, displays, floppy disk controllers, CRT controllers, machine tools, D-to-A and A-to-D converters, etc. Connections to these peripheral devices are made via the 8255A/82C55A Port Pins.

Q5. How does it work?
A5. Every peripheral device in a microcomputer system usually has a "service routine" associated with it. This routine manages the software interface between the device and the CPU. By examining the I/O devices interface characteristics for data transfer and timing, and matching this information to the examples and tables in the operational description, a control word can be developed to initialize the 8255A/82C55A to exactly "fit" the application. Data is transmitted or received by the device buffer upon execution of input or output instructions by the CPU. Control words and device status information are also transferred through the data bus buffer.

Q6. How does the 8255A/82C55A actually accomplish the interface activity?
A6. 1. The device has 24 I/O pins which may be individually programmed in 2 groups of 12 and used in 3 basic modes of operation. The modes can be selected by the system software. The modes are:

MODE 0 - Basic Input/Output: Each group of 12 I/O pins may be programmed in sets of 4 to be input or output.

MODE 1 - Strobed Input/Output: Each group of 12 I/O pins may be programmed to have 8 lines of input or output. Of the remaining 4 pins, 3 are used for handshaking and interrupt control signals.

MODE 2 - Bi-Directional Bus: 8 lines are used for a bi- directional bus, and 5 lines (borrowing one from the other group of 12) are used for handshaking.

2. The RD#, WR#, A0 and A1 (Port Select 0 and Port Select 1) signals are input into the device. The Read/Write Control Logic issues control words to the device Group A and Group B Controls. The Group A and Group B Controls, in turn, issue commands to the associated ports. The Control Groups are defined as:

Control Group A: Port A and Port C upper (C7-C4).
Control Group B: Port B and Port C lower (C3-C0).

3. The device contains three 8-bit ports (A, B, and C). These 3 ports receive control words from the Group A and Group B Controls. These 3 ports have special features:

PORT A: One 8-bit data output latch/buffer and one 8-bit data input latch.

PORT B: One 8-bit data input/output latch buffer and one 8-bit data input buffer.

PORT C: One 8-bit data output latch/buffer and one 8-bit data input buffer (no latch for the input). This port can be divided into two 4-bit ports under the mode control. Each 4-bit port contains a 4-bit latch and it can be used for the control signal outputs and status signal inputs in conjunction with ports A and B.

Q7. How is the 8255A/82C55A used?
A7. The specifications for the peripheral device are examined to determine the control and data signals which must be supported by the 8255A/82C55A. The 8255A/82C55A is then programmed to provide the correct I/O and data paths.

Q8. Can the 8255A/82C55A be programmed immediately after the system is powered-up?
A8. Yes, but it takes less software to do a device reset via the device reset pin and then program the 8255A. The sequence should be:

1. System power.
2. Device reset (to put it in a known state).
3. Program it as desired.

Q9. When can RESET be applied to the device with respect to the application of Vcc?
A9. RESET can be applied no earlier than 50ns after Vcc is applied (8086 specification).

Q10. What is the state of the 8255A following power-up? Is there a possibility of spurious outputs?
A10. The chip is in an unknown state following power-up. The possibility of spurious output during power-up always exists, however, there are no known instances of this. A reset should be used following power-up. This clears the control registers and all ports (A,B,C) are set to the input mode.

Q11. How are the devices packaged?
A11. The 8255A comes only in a P-dip package. The 82C55A comes in P-dip and plcc.

Q12. What is the parameter tRV found in the data sheet timing diagrams?
A12. The parameter tRV is not found in the 82C55A or 8255A wave forms. However, it is the time between reads and writes, as stated in the 8255A data sheet.

Q13. Is a customer able to drop an 82C55A device into the NMOS 8255A socket? Should a customer be concerned about the ability of the chip to drive a Darlington pair?
A13. All three ports of the 82C55A can source 2.5mA and drive Darlington pairs. The user must limit the current the chip sinks to the data sheet limits. The 82C55A still requires external pull-ups. The internal pull-ups designed to terminate the unused port pins in the 82C55A function if the pins are loaded with less than 20pF. Loads greater than 20pF will not have the logic level guaranteed by the internal pull-ups. Refer to the tech bit covering the port hold device description.

Q14. What are the two data sheet parameters IPHLO and IPHHO (Port Hold Low/High Overdrive Current)?
A14. There is a 4-page tech-bit called Reading from Output Ports and another called Port Hold Device Description. The definition of the two parameters IPHHO and IPHLO is the current necessary to overcome the port-hold devices. For example, if a pull-up device sources 300uA when active, it will require an external device to sink 350uA minimum to turn off that pull-up.

Q15. How many transistors are there in the 8255A and 82C55A?
A15. 8255A: 5800 transistors; 82C55A: 5200 transistors.

Q16. When the 8255A is programmed in Mode 0 as an output, can data be read back without reprogramming the chip?
A16. Yes, but since each port has slightly different circuitry, different values will be read.

1. The value read from Port A will represent the physical state of the output pins, i.e., if an output pin is shorted to ground, the value read from Port A would always be 00H, regardless of the value written.

2. The values read from Ports B and C are different. These values represent the state of the output latch, not the physical state of the pins as in Port A. If Ports B or C were shorted to ground, as in the above example, the last value written will be read regardless of the fact that the physical pins of Ports B or C are shorted to ground.

Q17. What will happen if the Strobe line is tied low?
A17. STB# must not go low while IBF is active. It may go low up to 300ns before IBF goes to active status in the 8255A and 150ns before IBF goes to active status in the 82C55A. If STB# were to go low when IBF is active, the peripheral will overwrite the previously written data which had not been read by the CPU. When STB# is tied low while initializing the 8255A, the chip will lock up and will not allow any data transfers to be made.

Q18. What is the current drive capacity of the 8255A and 82C55A?
A18. Any set of eight output buffers from Ports B and C can source between 1mA and 1.5mA, allowing the 8255A to drive Darlington type drivers and high voltage displays which require this source. Port A does not have this capacity since it sources only minimal current. All three ports in the 82C55 can source 2.5mA.

Q19. By reprogramming one port, what is the effect on the remaining ports?
A19. Writing a control word to reprogram one port affects the operation of the other ports, even if that one port is reprogrammed to exactly the same mode. This means the device cannot be reprogrammed "on the fly". The effects on each port are different depending on the mode.

1. Port A:
All Modes: Output data is cleared, input data is not cleared.

2. Port B:
Mode 0: Output data is cleared, input data is not cleared.
Mode 1 and 2: Both output and input data are cleared.

3. Port C:
Mode 0:Output data is cleared, input data is not cleared.
Mode 1 and 2: IBF and INTR are cleared and OBF# is set. Outputs in Port C which are not used for handshaking or interrupt signals are cleared. Inputs such as STB#, ACK#, or "spare" inputs are not affected. The interrupts for Ports A and B are disabled.

Q20. When is data latched in Mode 1?
A20. Data is latched on the rising edge of the 8255A Mode 1 STB# handshaking signal. This question typically arises when the designer is attempting to accommodate some external device or logic which does not provide the RD#, STB#, and IBF signals within the data sheet specifications. In general, if STB# does not go high the data read from that port may or may not be valid. STB# should go high prior to a RD# of the port data to guarantee that the data is valid.

Q21. Why is the STB# setup time (tPS) 0ns and the hold time (tPH) 180ns?
A21. The internal setup for latching data occurs on the falling (leading) edge of STB# and during the STB# low time (similar to a WR# operation). In most peripheral interface applications, the data setup time is not predictable but the hold time is, thus the long hold time spec of the 8255A (180ns) versus the short setup time (0ns). Data should remain stable during STB# low time, but the absolute requirement is stable data at STB# rising (trailing) edge and the data must remain stable during tPH.

Q22. Can WR# precede CS#?
A22. Yes. All relevant timings must also be reversed to provide correct setup and hold timing. This signal reversal is not a supported interface but several customers have used it with no reported problems.

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