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One‐to-one computing programs and laptop programs have been a popular approach to education reform in developing countries over the last decade. A motivation behind so many one-to-one laptop programs is the desire to overcome with one powerful resource the historical lack of educational tools and resources available in developing countries. The research on laptop programs in developing countries often finds that these programs help bridge the digital divide and improve students’ technical fluency, but the desired impact on academic achievement remains elusive (Valiente, 2010; Winthrop & Smith, 2012; Zucker & Light, 2009). A frequent problem identified in the research is that the laptops, once distributed to the children, may seldom be used in the classrooms. Research on laptop programs easily identifies the challenges to their use in classrooms as teacher training, time constraints, or outdated teaching approaches; however, the research seldom delves more deeply into how laptops might be more completely integrated into daily classroom use (Akbaba--‐Altun, 2006; Comenius, 2008; Kraemer, J. Dedrick, & Sharma, 2009; Light & Rockman, 2008; Vyasulu Reddi & Sinha, 2003; Winthrop & Smith, 2012).
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