Executive Summary: In the Russian Federation and other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries, a focus of national education policy is to modernize the education system by integrating new technologies that have emerged within education in Western Europe and North America (Pogosian, 2012). The current promotion of one-‐to-‐one learning in Russian schools is one of the strategies being... used to achieve this goal of modernization. Despite efforts to provide technology to Russian schools, the research suggests these resources are still infrequently used (Nikolaev & Chugunov, 2012; World Bank, 2008). Understanding how technology is actually used by teachers in their classrooms is a critical factor for developing effective interventions in Western nations, yet little is known about how laptop computers are currently being used in the classrooms in Russia or other CIS societies. Our study sought to inform the conversation of how to promote one-‐to-‐one learning by taking a close look at how laptops are used in the classrooms of Russian schools that are using them on a daily basis. In April, 2012, the Education Development Center’s Center for Children and Technology (EDC|CCT) traveled to Moscow and Nizhniy Novgorod to conduct research on two schools that have one-to- one laptop initiatives. Although both schools have developed their own laptop programs, the core of their programs are classroom sets of Intel® Classmate PCs, interactive whiteboards or projectors, wireless Internet access, and a virtual learning environment.